Volume 3, Issue 1, Spring 2013, Page 1-142


The Test of Hybrid Vigor of Singular Hybrids Extracted Locally From Corn Zea mays L.

Faisal M. Al-Taher; Abdul-Ameer Dhayif; Salih Hadi Al-Salim

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Two field experiments have been carried out one. The first in the station for research and agricultural experiments belongs to the college of agriculture university of al-Muthana ,during the spring season 2011. to formulate a singular hybrid from twenty pure offspring. the second one in al-Gharaf district Thi-Qar, during the autumn season 2011 to compare eleven singular hybrid( five of them formulated from the first experiment and six have been delivered from the general association for agricultural experiments. Abu-Ghraib) with their eleven fathers. Carried out according to Complete Block Design by three times. The male and female blossom period, the plant length, leaf size and cereal product and its components. After analyzing and evaluating the data the hybrid vigor and compare it to minimum and maximum results from the fathers according to the qualities, it has been found that all singular hybrids differed in its hybrid are vigor, in all studied characters, except in the quality of plant ear. When most hybrids have been positive hybrid vigor, save in AXB hybrid and CXB hybrid when the hybrids vigor have reached to 7.69% and 0.7% respectively. The results have shown that BXA hybrid has given the best value for the female blossom period (-10.63)% and female blossom (-9.22)% and the plant length (45.61)% and the line number in ear ( 34.74)% while the hybrid H-SF has given the best hybrid vigor, as the singular grain reached (53.16)% and the hybrid CXA for the grains number in line (51.230% and the grains product in plants is (91.77)% and the hybrid AX C for the leaf size (63.53)%. Thus, these results refer to the possibility of formulating a singular hybrid and planting it comparing with its fathers in study field, as well as replanting the hybrid in other sites and seasons to reach the inherited stability for the hybrid and present it for application and register

The Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Rice Oryza sativa L.

Faisal Mihbass Madlol

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 12-23

A field experiment has been conducted at AL-Muthanaa Governorate, during 2009 , 2010 and 2011 growing seasons to study the effect of four planting dates (1, 10, 20 June and 1 Jules) 0n growth and yield of six rice genotypes (IR-60819, RP-2235, MESHKAB-1, MESHKAB-2, YASSMEN AND ANBAR-22).Factorial arrangement in R.C.B. Design is used with three replicates .
Result have showed a significant effect of planting date on flag leaf area, infertility, number of panicle per m2, number of grain per panicle, grain weight, and grain yield that arrive 5.01, 5.28 and 4.87 ton/ ha. The genotypes significant effect in all studied characteristics except infertility, The genotype of YASSMEN and MESHKAB-2 genotypes have high mean of grain yield 3.98 and 3.65 ton/ ha at 2009. MESHKAB-1 and YASSMEN genotypes have given high grain yield 3.98 and 3.73 ton/ ha at 2010. MESHKAB-1and IR-60819 genotypes gave high grain yield 3.76 and 3.42 ton/ ha at 2011for tow genotypes respectively.
The interaction has significant effect on studied characteristics especially in 2009 and 2010.
The combinations (ANBAR-22 x 10 June) have given high grain yield 5.57 ton/ ha. (YASSAMEN x 10 June) have high grain yield arrives 5.75 ton/ ha in 2010. In 2010 the combinations (YASSAMEN x 10 June) and (MESHKAB-1 x 10 June) have given high grain yield amounts to 5.47 ton/ ha. The low means of yield for genotypes were obtained with 1 jule sowing date.

The Effect of Planting Date on the Characteristics Behavior of Rice Cultivars

Ryadh Jabar Mansoor

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 24-35

A field experiment has conducted at the Wassit governorate during 2009 and 2010 growing season to study the effect of planting dates (1,15 June and 1 july ) on the Behavior characteristics four Rice cultivars (Baghdad, Menathera, Furat and Anber-33
The experiment has been conducted as a factorial experiment with R.C.BD design with three replicates to determine the best cultivar and the best date to production .
Results have showed that the second planting date (15 of june ) is significantly higher than the other dates in flag leaf area ,number panicles , number of grain in a panicle , grain yield and less infertility ratio .
Menathera cultivar is significantly earlier of flowering 50% smallest mean for flag leaf area، The Second planting date(15 of june ) give the highest grain yield (4.388 and 4.388 ton/hec ) respectively.
Furat cultivar has given the smallest mean of infertility percentage .Baghdad cultivar is superior in plant high, number of panicles, number of grain in the panicle , 1000 grain Wight ,and the grain yield (4.003 ton / hec) . The interaction of second date with Baghdad cultivar gives the highest grain yield (5.200 and 5.030tan / hec) respectively.

Study of Some Field Standers and Laboratory for Main Three Rice Cultures in Iraq .

Alaa Hasan M; Muhamed Radhi; Khidhir Abass; Flayeh Abed Jaber; Kadhem Hadi Jassim

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 36-47

A field experiment was conducted during 2011 season at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station at Al Najaf Governorate. The objective were to study of field standard and laboratory for main three rice cultivars (Amber33 , Jasmine, and Furat 1)with four seed class (Foundation seed , Registered seed , Certified seed , and Commercial seed). The experiment design was used split plots with RCBD arrangement in three replications. The study showed that the Furat 1 and Jasmine was gave higher grain yield than Amber33 (6165kg.hˉ¹), (5576 kg.hˉ¹)and(4723 kg.hˉ¹) respectively. The result showed that off type plants numbers in 10mˉ² and off type seeds in 100 gm was increased whenever the seeds class decreased. The commercial seed class gave higher of off type plants number , while foundation seed class gave the lowest(7.4plant/10mˉ²) and(1 plant/10mˉ²) respectively. Whereas commercial seed class gave the higher seed off type and the foundation seed gave the lowest reached to (120.3 seed/100gm) and(11.7 seed/100gm) respectively. The off type plant number to Furat 1 cultivar gave (4.7 plant/10mˉ²), while the lower off type plant for Amber33(3.3 plant/10mˉ²), while the off type seed number of Furat 1 and Amber33 gave (70.7 seed/100gm) and (40.8 seed/100gm) respectively. Data also revealed that the higher off type plant number of Furat 1 cultivar (9 plant/10mˉ²) was associated with commercial seed class. The lower off type plant number of Amber33 (1 plant/10mˉ²)to foundation seed class , and the higher off type seed number of Furat 1 (154 seed/100gm) was associated with commercial seed class, while the lower off type seed number of Amber33(8 seed/100gm) with foundation seed class. The study showed that the off type plant and seed numbers was increased in same seed class when increased of productivity for all cultivars. Also there were significant difference between off type plant and seed numbers, then, was increased in same seed class when the productivity was increased also to all cultivars. The Furat 1 and Jasmine (High of grain yield) gave the higher of off type plant and seed numbers for commercial , registered, and certified seed class respectively compare with Amber33 (low of grain yield).

Effect Irrigation the Magnetic of Some Growth of the Barley Hordeum Vulgare L .

Hussam F. Najeeb

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 48-53

This experiment carried out in the canopy of the unity of the agricultural fields in the Faculty of Agriculture - University of AL-Qadisiyah during the winter season 2011 - 2012, using pot capacity 15 kg per pot instead of the experimental units used the randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) and three replicates. The results show and a significant effect when the treatment magnetization of irrigation water to twice compared to transactions other irrigation during the germination and plant height and number of leaves per plant, an area of the Science paper and a number forest (Actae) was 5.33 days and 67.00 cm and 47.00 paper / plant and 56.00 cm 2 and 15.00 branch / plant, respectively.

The Response of Three Cultivars Corn( Zea mays.L) For Ading Zinc in Babil .

Saeed Salman Issa

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 54-61

A field experiment has been performed during the season of 2009 year in silt clay of soil in the zone (Abi Garaq) (15)km west Hilla . To study the effect of the cultivars ( Behoth106 ، Tabarek، Talar ) and four Levels from Zinc (0 ، 2.5 ، 5.0 ، 7.5( Kg/ ha-1 in the seed yield and the other plant properties .The experiment applied has been carried out by using (R.C.B.D) with three replications . The results have indicated that using (Behoth106 )variety significantly increases the number of grain in rows ، using (Talar) variety significantly increases the number of rows and percentage of moisture ، and (Tabarek) cultivar gave the best grain yield (5914.08) Kg/ha-1. significant incensement are attained by increasing the levels of Zinc fertilizer in yield and grain yield ، level (7.5) Kg/ha-1 results maximum grain yield (6062.21) Kg/ha-1 . No significant interaction between cultivars and Zinc fertilizer has been noticed in yield and grain yield.

The Using of Waste Water for Irrigation Purpose the with Possibility of Environmental Pollution by Lead and Cadmium

Hamid Hussein Rajab

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 62-72

This study deals with a prospect using different levels of waste water from the heavy – water treatment plant in Rustumiya Baghdad for irrigation purpose and their effects on growth and yield of corn (zea mays L.), with some chemical properties of soil, such as ECe , pH , and total Fe,Mn,Zn,Cu,Pb, Cd in soil and plant. Three levels of waste water (0,50,and 100%) have been used at two stages, without fertilizer. (320 kg N.h-1 with 80 kg P.h-1) for the control treatment, and the second is with chemical fertilizer (160 kg N.h-1 with 40 kg P.h-1) for two levels (50,100%) of waste water. Seeds of zea mays L. are planted in plastic pots of 12 kg capacity. CRD with three replicates has been used. Results have showed a significant increases in the electrical conductivity and pH of soil at both levels (%50,100) applied, as compared with control treatment. Whereas the high level of Applying (%100) has given a significant increasing in the electrical conductivity and pH is compared with tow levels (%50) of waste water applied. Also results have indicated a significant increasing in all heavy metals studied in soil and plant for both treatments of comparing with the control treatment , and this increase continues with increased level of waste water applied. Never the less, all heavy metals studied are in minimal enrichment of pollution according to contamination parameters (EF,CF,and PLI) used in this study , and have been suggested by many recent pollution studies. Results showed a significant increased in the plant length and dry weight of plant for all treatments comparing with the control treatment. Also the tow levels (%50) of waste water applied with half amount of chemical fertilizer has given a significant increasing in plant length and dry weight of the plant.

The Study of some Mineralogical Properties of Fine Sand Fraction in some Forest Soils / Northern Iraq

Barzan O. Ahmed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 73-83

This study has been undertaken to investigate the mineralogical properties and morphological features of very fine sand fraction in some forest soils / northern Iraq .
The morphological features of very fine sand fractions were studied by optical microscope . Results have shown that the grains of these minerals from individual soil horizons have different colours , those from the surface horizons have dark brownish spots , due to staining by organic matter , those from (B) horizon have a yellowish grey – to yellowish brown spots due to accumulation of Iron oxides , and those from the (C) horizon are grey , similar to the parent rocks . Results of light minerals indicated that quartz is dominant due to effect of parent material of these soils . Two types of opaque minerals (black and brown) are found , wheras the brown opaque minerals were dominant in heavy minerals .
Three groups of transparent heavy minerals are found , stable minerals (Pyroxen and Amphibole , metastable minerals) (Epidote and Garnet) , and Ultra stable minerals (Zircon and Tourmaline).

Attitude of Rice Farmers Toward the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) at Al-Muthanna Governorate in Iraq and its Relationship with Some Variables

Khidhir Abbas Hameed Kirmasha; Raad Moslim Ismail Al.Khazraji

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 84-100

The research aims at identifying the rice farmers' attitude in Al-Muthanna Governorate towards System of Rice Intensification(SRI) and finding out the relationship between farmers' attitudes according to some variables , determining the differences levels between the attitude and some variable.
The research community consists all rice farmers at Al-Muthanna Governorate whose covered by activities, training, and application of(SRI), their numbers reached to (2400) farmers in Rumatha, Warkaa, Majd, and Najmi locations.
Random proportionate sample(5%) has been chosen, so as the sample size become(120) respondents. In order to achieve the objective of the research, a questionnaire form has been prepared to collect data from respondents by personal interview method. To achieve the research aim, a fivefold scale has been used. The highest score on the scale was(393) degree, whereas, lesser score is(289) degree. The scale involves (90) items with average arithmetic (337.65), and the standard deviation (20.72).
The result have showed that the (65.00%) of respondents have favorable attitude towards the System of Rice Intensification(SRI), (21.67%) of respondents could not solidify their attitude, (13.33%) of respondents have unfavorable attitude.
Result have shown significant differences in respondents attitude according to variables: education levels, size of holdings, type of holdings, number of rice sowing years, and no significant differences in respondents attitude according to variables: Age, family number, agricultural extension activities participate, and agricultural information sources.

A Comparative Study to Measure the Insecticides Diazinon and Vapona ( Nogos ) on Some Soil Fungi in Vitro

Ihsan Flaih Hassan

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 101-114

Four fungi ,have been isolated from the rhizosphere of Viccia faba in the AL-Qadisiya District fields , were selected for their variable resistance to toxic insecticide Diazinon at the range of ( 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 )ppm concentration where the ( 0.6 ) ppm concentration represents to the initial concentration in the field soil . Another Nogos insecticide have been Studied at the range of ( 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 ) ppm concentration where the (0.5) ppm concentration represents the initial concentration in the field soil . These fungi were Aspergillus niger , Rhizopus stolinifer ( high tolerance ) , Trichoderma harzianum ( moderate tolerance ) , Fusarium solani ( Low tolerance ) .
The inhibition percent age of T. harzianum reaches to ( 18.8%) , ( 16.6%) with Diazinon on solid media in ( 0.2 and 0.4 ) ppm concentration , but the inhibition percent age of Fusarium solani reaches to ( 22.2 %) , ( 11.1%)
In ( 0.4 and 0.6 ) ppm concentration .
The inhibition percent of T.harzianum reaches to ( 28.8%) with insecticide Vapona ( Nogos ) on solid media in ( 0.5 ) ppm concentration , but the the inhibition percent age of F.solani reaches to ( 45.5% ) in ( 0.5 ) ppm concentration and ( 36.6% ), ( 46.6 %) in ( 0.1 and 0.3 ) ppm concentration . The results have shown that A.niger , R. stolinifer and T. harzianum are able to convert these insecticide to other compounds in laboratory , but F. solani dose not convert these insecticides .

Study of Some Biological Parametes for Sitoroger Cerealella which was Reared on Various Diets.

Nehad Kadhim; Ahmed Shemkhi; Hazim Idan; Ali Dhumad; Ahmed Mahmod

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 115-124

Life span of Sitoroger cerealella which was reared on various diets is studied at laboratory condition ( 27±1C ,60±5%RH) At the agricultural laboratories of the Ministry of Science & Technology , during 2009-2010 .The results has shown that the shortest period for development this insect is 34.8 day when it is reared on rice (variety ,Amber) ,while the longest period was 53. 2 day , when it is reared on wheat .The results of this study proved that there's no effect for the type of diet on the longevity of males and females, time before and after eggs laying .The results also has shown that ,the diet have effect on eggs number which are laid by females and hutching percentage .Maximum average of eggs laying is recorded by the female on maize (104.2)/female ,while the minimum averse of eggs which have laid (52.6)/female ,for the adults reared on rice (variety ,Amber).High eggs hutching percentage was recorded for the females which have reared on rice (variety ,Amber) 94.71%, while the minimum is 64.46% for the females are reared on barley .Finally the study record that the high emergence of adults 54.81%for the females reared on rice (variety ,Amber ) while the lowest is recorded for the females reared on wheat 26.94% and the sex ratio always toward the males except the adults emergence from the diet of rice (amber) which has the sex ratio is (35male:39female).

Effect of Garlic Oil on Productive Performance of Awassi Lambs and Some Blood Parameter

Elham Abdul Hameed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 125-133

18 Awassi lambs aged ranged from 3.5 - 4 months with an average weight of 23,67 ± 0,34 kg ,were used in this study, The lambs were chose randomly from sheep flock at Al-Rasheidia station, Mosul and was divided to three groups equal, fed for ninety days, the three groups on the same basal ration and supplemented with 1.5 and 3 ml garlic oil /animal / day for lambs in second and third groups respectively, while first group was left as control without supplementation , and study the effect garlic oil on production performances (average total gain, final weight , feed conversion and on some hematological & biochemical parameters . The results indicated that the second and third groups significantly (P≤0.05) increased in total gain , final weight , feed conversion ratio , hemoglobin , red & white blood cell count, while cholesterol , triglycerides were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in the second and third groups ,respectively as compared to first group . On the other hand the periods has significantly (P≤0.05) affect on total gain and the final weight.

Effect of Pulverization Tools and Deficit Irrigation Treatments on Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Barley

Alaa S. Ati; Shaima S. Dawod; Inas A. Abduljabbar

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 135-142

Under limited water resources in arid and semi-arid environments, the great challenge of developing agriculture is to increase water use efficiency. For that field experiment have been conducted during autumn season of 2011-2012 at the experimental farm, Department of Agricultural Machines Science, College of Agriculture –University of Baghdad. A field study have been carried out to determine the effect of pulverization tools and irrigation scheduling on growth parameters and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of barley crop for optimum production. Pulverization tools treatments are (rotivator, disk harrow and spring cultivator). Deficit irrigation including omitting two irrigation at growth stage (T1), flowering stage (T2) and growth grain stage (T3), as well as the full irrigation treatment (control) (T0). Irrigation is applied at 55% depletion of available water. Plant growth parameter of barley is significantly affected by the different irrigation treatments and pulverization tools. The mean values of the pulverization tools shows that the plant height (cm) decreased from 86 to 79 and 76, No. of spike/ m2 from 582 to 569 and 530, biological yield (t/ha) from 16.64 to 16.13 and 14.72 and the grain yield (t/ha) from 5.36 to 4.81 and 4.22 at spring cultivator, disk harrow and rotivator, respectively. The deficit-irrigated treatments required less water than the control-irrigated treatments,have been recorded 320 – 369 mm and 373 – 411 mm, respectively. The mean ETa measured during the season is 370 mm for spring cultivator and 391, 400 mm for the disk harrow and rotivator, respectively. The highest actual evapotranspiration is measured for the rotivator + control irrigation treatment (438 mm), while the lowest value have been recorded 347 for spring cultivator + deficit irrigation (T3). The water use efficiency of all the treatment ranges from 0.94 to 1.53 kg m-3 while the irrigation water uses efficiency ranges from 1.01 to 1.66 kg m-3.