Volume 4, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-107


The Effect of Interaction Among Salinity, Organic Material and Fungi Aspergillus candidus and Fusarium nygamai on the Element Concentration Na, Mg and Ca in Soil and Barley Plant

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AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

The results of interaction between the fungi, EC, the proportion of cattail: soil and periods (after mixing directly, 14, and 28 days) show the amount of Sodium (Na) in treatment A. candidus + 5 + 1:1 + after mixing directly, 14 and 28 days are 9.16, 8.92 and 8.68 meq/L respectively which record a significant decrease as compared to all other treatments. The highest value of Calcium (Ca) was 73.27 meq/L in treatment of Fusarium nygamai + 15 + 3:1 + after mixing directly, except the treatment of F. nygamai + 15 + soil only + after mixing directly and control treatment +15 + soil only + after mixing directly which reaches to 72.56 and 70.26 meq/L, respectively.
The effect of soil with different levels of EC, blended cattail and inoculum of A. candidus and F. nygamai are studied to show the content of shoot system of nutritional elements in barley after 28 days from planting , results show highest percentage of Na is 0.1503% in treatment of F. nygamai +15 + 3:1 + after mixing directly. The treatment of A. candidus + 3:1 + after mixing directly show highest percentage (0.265%) of Ca . The highest percentage of magnesium is 0.376% in treatment of A. candidus + 5 + 1:1 + after mixing directly.

The Influence of Sewage Sludge on Some Soil Chemical Properties Cultivated by Lattuce Plant

K. M. Al-Azawi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 17-25

A field experiment has been carried out in one of Yousifia village fields – Baghdad Province to investigate the effect of dried sewage on some chemical proprites in calcarious clay loam textured soil and their effect on the growth and yield of Lettuce plant uses randamized complete block design (RCBD) of triplicates. The experiment includes two treatments : the first one using mineral fertilizers and the second treatment uese mineral fertilizers with 40 ton.ha-1 of dried sewage sludge , mixed with soil to a depth of 30 cm. Mineral fertilizers are applied to all treatments in an average of 180, 220 and 80 kg.ha-1 of Urea (46% N) , super phosphate (20% P) and Potassium sulphate (41.7% K) respectively. Lettuce is planted at 2/11/2012 and irrigated with a river water after consumption of 75% of available water. In 18/2/2013 the plants have been harvested randomly from each replicate , fresh and dry weight measured . Soil and leaves samples from all treatments are taken for analysis.
Results showed: a Significant increase in each of these chemical properties : Electrical conductivity ( from 3.80 to 4.16 dS.m-1),cation exchange capacity (24.28 – 25.36 Cmol+kg-1),soil content of organic matter (8.70 – 11.89 g.kg-1) concentrations of soluble ions , available nitrogen ( 0.42 – 0.81 g.kg-1 ) , available phpsphorus ( 8.6 – 19.81 g.kg-1) , yield and notsigniricant increase in sodium adsorption ratio values (2.54 – 2.80 (mmol/L)½) , while there is a significant decrease in soil reaction values (7.74 – 7.61 ) and decrease in concentrations of available potassium
The results confirm the possibility of using sewage sludge as a good organic fertilizer in Iraqi calcareous soils .

The Effect of Different added & Concentration of Organic Fertilizer (Humic Acid) an Growth & Quotient Component of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum) California Wander Cultured Under the Open Field .

Razaq Kadhim Rahman; Salman Shbeb Akol; Ameer Abass Hussein

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 26-37

An experiment has been conducted in Altalia'a City / Babylon on Paprika Capsicum annunm, California wander cultivar , during the season 2012 under open field in loamy soil . This study includes (9) treatments which are resulted form three levels of humic acid ( 0 , 30 , 40 )g/m2 with 3 dates of added at (15 , 30, 45 days ) from transplanting and their effect on vegetative and fruit growth . The experiment adopts the Split Plot Design (SPD) within RCBD with three replicates and the means are compared to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at the probability level of 0.05.
Results show superiority of all concentrations of humic acid treatments significantly as compared with control treatment in all vegetative growth and fruiting properties and the interaction of is C×T significantly affected the above parameters to control treatment for the four pickings ( 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 ) , for recipes studied .
The treatment dates added have more than the first date on the other two date for prescription rate of plant height (cm) of the four pickings and the results are ( 115.3 , 120.4 , 130.7 , 145.4 ) cm , respectively .While the number of leaves / plant and the area cm2 / plant the second and the third date is superior on the first date , while the number of fruits / plant for the third date has significant above the picking (4, 6 , 8) and the results are ( 20.37 , 19.84 , 13.70 ), fruit / plant , respectively .
Whereas fruit weight in first and second dates are superior. Either recipe yield plant kg / plant outweigh the second date of the another dates and for the four pickings ( 2, 4, 6, 8 ) are ( 0.719 , 2.058 , 2.842 , 3.490 ) kg / plant , respectively

The Allelopathic Effects of Fresh and Dry Eucalyptus sp Leaves and Their Extracts on Germination and Some Vegetative Characters of Some Ornamental Plants.

Majeed K. Abbas; Kawthar Hashim Abar

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 38-53

The present study is conducted to study the effect of fresh or dry leaves of Eucalyptus sp and their extracts on seed germination and some vegetative characters of four ornamental plants namely; Calendula officinalis, Tagete patula, Mathiola incana and Asteriscus graveolens. The results show that the treatment with ethanolic extract, oil, or some other compounds extracted from Eucalyptus leaves such as terpenes, alkaloids and phenols at different concentrations cause significant reduction in germination percentage of Calendula officinalis, Tagete patula and Mathiola incana. Treatment with oil and the other three compounds cause significant reduction in plumule and radical length. Also, the results show that the treatment with dry or fresh leaves cause significant decrease in plant height, which increases as the concentration of treatment increase, especially at the dry leaves treatment. However, plant height of Calendula increase at the 2g dry leaves/kg treatment. In addition, the treatment with fresh leaves has an obvious effect on all tested plants. Also, the number of branches is reduced in both kinds of treatments in Calendula and Tagete plants. The interaction between the different concentrations of all treatments and kind of plants reveals that the higher concentrations of the different treatments , the more different results are.

A Study of Isolation and Identification of Habitated Fungi in Sediments of Suq Al-Shuyokh Marshes

Ihsan.F.H. AI-Jawhary; N.H; Hakeem

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 54-61

Nineteen filamentous fungi have been isolated from sediments collected from different sites in the Suqalshuyokh marshes of Governorate of Thi- Qar by dilution method. The results show that Deutromycota fungi is more dominant genera with 94.5% and the second dominant genera is Ascomycota with 2.5% the third dominant genera is Zygomycota with 2.5% .Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani are more frequancy with 100% in all samples, but Aspergillus fumigates , penicillium funiculosum are 83% and the percent of A. flavus reached to 33% , at the same time the percent of another fungi has reached to 16%.
The results showed that the different sites in this study have no high effect on fungi diversity in sediments of marshes due to the similitary of environment in study sites .

Training Needs of Covered Vegetables in Diwaniya District as Interrelated to Some Variables

Bayan Abdul -Jabbar Radha AI-Saadi; Imad Jassim Chalab AL-naylle

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 62-73

The search aims at determining is the level of training needs in general growers of protected vegetables, determining the relationship between the training needs of growers of protected vegetables and some of independent factors as : (age, educational level, the number of family members , the number of years of work in the area of protected agriculture, exposure to agricultural sources of information related to agriculture protected ) , and to identify the problems faced by protected vegetable growers in the district of Diwaniya . In order to achieve the objectives of the research a questionnaire has been prepared in the light of the literature , opinions , the approval of the relevant experts and it consists of three parts : the first part deals with the factors independent of the aforementioned , the second part : includes a measure of needs for training in the cultivation of protected vegetables that consists of (46 ) items are distributed among three axes:
1. creation and installation of greenhouse , 2. agricultural operations related to soil service, 3. agricultural operations related to crop service . its higher degree has reached 138 and the minimum degree zero , while the third part includes the problems that the growers of protected vegetables may encounter in the district of Diwaniya. The data collected during of August, September, and October / 2012 by questionnaire and personal interview method of proportional stratified random sample of protected vegetable growers by 80% and by 86 respondents .
The results of the search show the average scores for training needs for all growers of protected vegetables amounted to 93.02 degrees, and 51.16 % of the respondents are scores training needs within the medium level of need , it has shown a correlation between training needs of respondents and each of the independent variables : (age, education level ,family members , the number of years of work in protected agriculture , exposure to sources of agricultural information related to agriculture protected , to the problems faced by growers of protected vegetables , the results show that the problems of lack of provision of quality seeds at subsidized prices, the lack of provision of pesticides appropriate for vegetables protected and subsidized prices , lack of processing of agricultural fertilizers needed for protected vegetables comes first of the levels of the problems ,while the problem of for the sources of water , the fields of farmers ranked last among the problems . The most important thing recommended by the researcher is the need to take care of this type of protected agriculture through the development of specialized training programs on the part of the Ministry of Agriculture – General Authority for Guidance , Agricultural Cooperation and in Coordination with the Colleges of Agriculture . The researcher also recommended the need for agricultural equipment and other agricultural companies providing agricultural inputs needed by vegetable growers and especially protected seeds , pesticides , fertilizers and subsidized like strategic crops as wheat , rice and maize .

The Abstention of Rice Growers of Planting Anbar Rice Species in AL – Shamiya District / AL – Qadisiya Province

Nadhim Abed Saiyer; Mithal A. S. Al-mashhadani

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 74-86

The research aims at describing the properties of rice growers in Al-Shamia district and to explore the reasons of abstaining of those farmers from growing Anbar rice species giving some suggestions to stop that abstention .The study includes All rice growers ( 1310) and the sample is (66) growers (%5) of the society .Date have been collected by a questionnaire during May- August2013 ،. .A triple scale has been designed to measure the reasons of growers abstaining from growing Anbar species. The scale includes (30) items on (7) axis.
The results show that the reason behind diminishing growing of Anbar rice species is growing other species of high productivity with same price.
The results show that the more abstention growers of the who are elder and the owners of big holders and have more experience in rice planting. The researcher recommended that to increase the efforts of gurney system and research has centers to produce better rice species of the same cooking properties and having a good resistance to recumbence. The researcher also has recommended to create extensional program to keep growing of Anbar rice species.

The Study of The Effect of Coating Soft Cheese by Some Kinds of Oil of Spices on Sensory, Chemical and Microbial Characters During Storage in Refrigerator

Basima J.M.AL-gurabi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 87-98

This study has been carried out to evaluate the effect of using oils of some kinds of spices (garlic, black seed, corn &mint) on prolonging the preservation period of soft white cheese. Two pieces of soft white cheese have been purchased from Al Batool Company and distributed on five treatments(control, garlic, black seed, corn and mint).Samples of cheese are coated by oils of the spices and then stored in refrigerator for different periods (1,3,6,9,12) days. During these periods done evaluation of sensory characters for cheese (color, flavor, texture, bitterness,) to all treatments and the results were analyzed statistically.
The results which have been obtained show that garlic treatment exceeds other treatments in keeping sensory characters. Black seed and corn treatments come in the second rank. The results also reveal that a significant(P<0.05)superior of garlic and black seed treatment as compared to other treatments in keeping the chemical composition of cheese (PH, moisture, acidity nitrogen, VFA).The inhibitory effect of garlic and black seed is obvious and significantly P<0.05)on microorganism, particularly total count bacteria, which is(21×103 and 30×101) cfu/g respectively for garlic treatment Vs (47×103 and 38×101) cfu/g for black seed .Generally the results show that possibility of using oils of spices as preservative materials, because they are able to increases the preservation period of soft cheese for 12 days. While samples of control, exposed to many changes in all studied characters when store for the same period.

Addition Effect of Different Levels of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevi) and Iraq Probiotic on Some Growth Performance Parameters and Some Blood Enzymes in Tilapia zilli .

M. O. A. AL- jubouri; A. R. H. AL-ghazali; B. N. K. ghazali

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 99-107

The research is conducted on Tilapia zilli from 15/12/2013 to 01/03/2014 to study the effect of adding different levels of bread yeast Saccharomyces cerevi and Iraqi probiotic growth rate and increase the weight weekly and liver enzymes ALT, AST, Alkaline phosphates and protein total , fish are classified into five groups using bread yeast and probiotic Petrkizian each 8 g / kg 0.12 g / kg , the five group at (8 g / kg yeast bread ) and the control treatment T1, show significant level (p <0.01) in the rate of increase of the weight ( 4.32 ± 63.77 g , 3.44 ± 62.37 g respectively for the treatment of the fifth and control ) , while the lowest increase in body weight recorded for third group (12 g / kg of probiotic it is( 3.74 ± 44.61 g ), while there is no significant differences between groups in the amount of the increase in total length of fish . The amount increase of the rate of weighted daily fish is the highest rate of treatment of five 0.8 g / day and coincided with a lower concentration of the liver enzyme ALT, and lower the rate of increase in body weight of third ( 0.6 g / day) , which is coincided with the highest concentration of the enzyme ALT .

Influence of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) on Blood Parameters, Kidney, Liver and Mammary Gland Function for Parturited Aissi Ewes.

Waleed Mohammad Hassan

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The fenugreek seeds in diet of parturited Aissi sheep (2-3 years age) are studied to determine their influence on blood parameters, liver, kidney, and mammary gland functions .Twelve experimental treatments are carried out, control group (T1¬) is fed diet, composed of barely 50% wheat bran 25%, wheat flour 15% molasses 5%, urea 2% lima stone 1%, common salts 1% and nutrition complement 1%. Second group (T¬2) is fed as (T1) ration with 10gm fenugreek / head / day. Third group (T3) is feeds as (T1) in addition to 20gm fenugreek head / day. The results indicated that RBCs, WBCs and Hb conc. values are significantly (P<0.05) higher in (T¬2) and (T3) than control group (T1). No significant differences among treatments are found in PCV and MCV. Total protein, albumin and globulin are significantly (P<0.05) effected by adding fenugreek in (T2) and (T3) comparing with control group (T1). The results also show that glucose and cholesterol in (T2) and (T3) decrease significantly (P<0.05) as compared with control group (T1). No significant difference among treatments are found in all AST, ALT enzymes, urea and creatinine. (T2) and (T3) recorded the best values milk quantity during sucking periods comparing with those control group (T1). .From previous results, it could be concluded that fenugreek seeds should be used as milk yield increasing agent.