Volume 4, Issue 2, Autumn 2014, Page 1-148


The Effect of Using Different Levels of Treated Roughage Feed and Un-Degraded Concentrate Feed its Decomposition on Milk Yield Contents of Arabi Ewes

F.Al-Hello; Jaffar M.Jassim Murtadha; Jalal Okaily Yesar

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

The present study is conducted at the Animal Farm/ College of Agriculture/ University of Basrah during the period from 2/12/2012 to 2/3/2013. The study include 24 milking Arabi ewes ranged from 2-4 years age, having single lamb, closely lambing date and weighted 42 kg. After giving the ewes preliminary period of 10 days, they are distributed randomly and equally into six feeding groups. The first group is fed 60% concentrate and 40% roughages; soya bean meal is treated by formaldehyde. The second group is fed 60% concentrate and 40% roughages with untreated soya bean meal. The third group is fed 50% concentrate and 50% roughages with treated soya bean meal. The fourth group is fed 50% concentrate and 50% roughages with untreat soya bean meal. The fifth group was fed 40% concentrate and 60% roughages with treated soya bean meal. The sixth group is fed 40% concentrate and 60% roughages with untreated soya bean meal (control). The ration is given as 4% of live body weight. The concentrate consists of 40% barley, 20% corn, 30% wheat bran, 7% soya bean meal, 1% salt and 2% Calcium bicarbonate. Roughage is wheat straw treated with 4% urea and 3kg/ton yeast. Treated soya bean meal reduced degradable protein from 70% to 60% Milk yield of the first and two months for the first, third, fourth and fifth treatments is significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of control treatment. Total milk yield for the first, second, third and fifth treatment is higher (P<0.05) than those of fourth and control groups. The first group is the best in daily milk yield follow by second, third and fifth treatments. Milk composition is the different significantly (P<0.05) among groups except pH. The third treatment showed highest fat and protein%, fourth group in lactose and urea. Third and fourth group showed lowest level of moisture. All feeding groups showed significant (P<0.05) the highest levels of milk content in comparison with control group except moisture. Results revealed that fatty acids% did not influenced by formaldehyde treatments. However, they are significantly (P<0.05) affected by the level of roughage ; the highest value was recorded by second group in comparison with control. Oleic acid is recorded the highest level in the milk (36.3 and 52.61% of first and second groups respectively). The capric acid is rare (1.15 and 3.7% of the second and the fourth groups respectively). All fatty acid percentages are influenced significantly by the treatments except capric acid.

The Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Chemical Composition in the Milk of Holstein Friesian Cows

Raed Kawkab Abdul Hussein; Saad Faisal Abboud

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 11-18

This study is conducted in the field of animal of the Department of Livestock – College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad, and the practical part of the study for a period of five months begins in 13/08/2013 to12/1/2014 by using 29 Holstein Friesian cows . These cows are differed in the number of times of birth (parity) , and in the stage of lactation. The objective of the study is to study the effect of some environmental factors on the chemical composition of Holstein Friesian cows , the animals are fed on the same ration during the period of the study is based on a given animal you grass feed ( alfalfa or hay ) as well as concentrate feed and is focus on being the bush uniform for all studied animals and not to change components to the extent possible in order to affect the statement of other non- nutritional factors and their impact on the chemical composition of the milk, which is the desired goal of this study. The results show that there significant effect (p<0.05) at lactation stage on milk protein , as it records the highest percentage of protein 2.86 %in the third stage and the lowest percentage 2.79 % was in the second stage, while there were no significant differences a many the other components. Results also show significant effect (p<0.05) of season of year on the proportion of milk fat , with the highest percentage 3.34 % recorded in the spring season and the lowest 2.52 % in the summer , Also is record the highest percentage of milk sugar 4.24 % in the spring season and the lowest 4.07 % in summer, and there are no significant differences for protein and minerals of milk . also record significant effect (p<0.05) of parity on the components of milk , which is the highest percentage of fat 3.66 %in the first birth and the lowest percentage 2.67 %of the fourth calving , also the record the highest percentage of protein 2.86 % in the first calving and the lowest percentage 2.74 % in the third calving, also the first calving exceed the third in the percentage of sugar which is : 4.29 Vs . 4.09 % and it is 0.64 Vs. 0.61 % of metals .

Comparing the Effect of Adding Different Types of Vegetable Oils to the Diet of Japanese Quail) Coturnixcoturnix japonica) on Some Haematological and Biochemical Parameters

Zahira A.Al- Zuhairi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 19-28

The aim of the current study is to compare the effect of adding different types of vegetable oils to the Japanese quail diet on some haematological parameters such as the RBC count ,WBC count ,Hb concentration , the value of PCV ,(H / L ratio) and biochemical parameters such as the concentration of cholesterol , triglycerides , high-density lipoprotein (HDL),low density lipoprotein )LDL ) in addition to the concentration of total protein ,glucose , uric acid and liver enzymes GOT, GPT, ALP in the blood serum.
In this study , a total of 100 birds from Japanese quails aged 60 days were used and distributed randomly into five treatments:
The first group (T1) is represented control group fed diet containing 5 % corn oil.
The second group (T2) is fed diet containing 5 % olive oil .
The third group (T3) is fed diet containing 5 % fenugreek oil.
The fourth group (T4) is fed diet containing 5% rapeseed oil .
The fifth group (T5) is fed diet containing 5% linseed oil .
The result of the experiment show that there is presence of a no significant increase in the RBC and high significant(P <0.05) in WBC count , the concentration of hemoglobin Hb , percentage of PCV values , protein concentration and high-density lipoprotein in groups treated with olive oil , fenugreek, rapeseed linseed oil as compared to a range of bird -treatment corn oil, as well as the results of this study show that there is significant decline (P<0.05) in concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides , and the concentration of LDL(low density lipoprotein) as well as the concentration of glucose and uric acid in groups treated with different types of vegetable oils as compared with corn oil . As for the impact of these vegetable oils on the liver enzymes have contributed to these oils to raise the proportion of each of GOT , GPT, ALP enzymes a compared with a group of birds that fed on corn oil .

The Effect of Wetting Feed with Water on Some Productive Traits for Broiler

Mahdi S. Mohammad

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 29-39

The present study is carried out at Poultry Farm Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad. During the period 12- 9- 2012 - 24 – 10 – 2012 . A total of 240 one day old broiler chicks Ross – 308 strain . Are randomly divided into four equal treatment groups according to the added water amount on diet . Each groups sub-divided into three replicates with twenty chicks for each .The chicks are fed starter diet during 3 weeks from chicks age, and then fed on grower diet until 42 days .The results of the statistical analysis of data show that wetting diet with water lead to significant effect in weekly and finally average body weight, average weight gain, total feed consumption, daily feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and total mortality ratio. There is no significant effect in production index. The wetting feed leads to improving feed consumption especially at hot times and final average body weight that is positively reflected on broiler performance.

The Effect of Nutrition Systems and Exchange of Diets on Some Productive Performance of Broilers

Abbas Salim H. Al-Machi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 40-49

This study is conducted at the poultry farm College of Agriculture - University of Muthanna from 28/2/2013 until 3/4/2013 to study the effect of nutrition systems and exchange of diets on some productive performance of broilers. Three hundred broiler chicks(Ross),are a day old. are used in this experiment The birds are distributed to three treatment groups with four replicates per treatment (100 birds per treatment). The treatment groups are as follows:
1. First Treatment; Three diets are given to the birds starter diet for the(1-15 days), grower diet for the (16-28 days) and finisher (29-35 days).
2. Second Treatment: Two diets are given to the birds starter diet for the (1-21 days) and finisher diet for the (22-35 days).
3. Third Treatment: One diet were given to the birds for the whole period of age (1-35 day)
The results show a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in live body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, production index and dressing percentage were recorded for the broiler supplemented with three diets given are to birds (First Treatment)as compared with third treatment (One diet given to birds). The third treatment has a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the same traits as compared with the second treatment.

The Effect of Coating Meat with Oil of Corn and Black Seed (Nigella Sativa L.) on Some of its Qualitative, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics During Freezing Storage

Hassan; H.J

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 50-66

This study is carried out to find the effect of coating mutton (sheep meat) with oil of corn and black seed on some chemical, qualitative, sensory and microbial Characteristics of meat. A total of 45 samples of fresh meat sheep distributed randomly into 3 treatments (15 sample per each treatment) as follow( control treatment ,meat samples treated with black seed oil and samples treated with corn oil . The tests the for different treatment are conduded before freezing and others are kept at the temperature -18 c◦ for 1,2,4 and 8 weeks to make test on it. The results obtained in this study show that there is a significant prevalence for meat samples treated with black seed oil and samples treated with corn oil in moisture content as compared with control treatment. Also the samples before freezing record a high percentage of moisture content as compared to lower percentage at the end of storage period and also shown a significant reduction in Coliform bacteria count and Psychrophiles bacteria for samples treated with black seed oil. There is a higher bacterial count for Coliform bacteria before storage (freezing) while lower average at the end of storage period, Pychrophiles bacteria area higher at the end of storage period as compared with lower are before freezing. The results of the present study show a significant reduction in value of thiobarbuteric acid and total volatile nitrogen in meat samples treated with black seed oil as compared to control treatment also all treatment show a significant increasing in thiobarbuteric acid and quality of total volatile nitrogen at the end of storage period as compared to lower average before storage. A significant reduction in PH value for meat samples treated with black seed oil as compared with other treatments are observed. While a significant increasing in PH value is observed for along period of storage and is highest at the end of storage period as compared with lower value before freezing. The results of sensory evaluation for meat sample treated with oil of corn and black seed show a significant superior in sensory Characteristics which includes (flavor, tenderness and juiciness) as compared with control treatment . Also all of fresh meat samples are best in all studied sensory Characteristics before freezing as compared with after 8 weeks of freezing storage.

The Diagnosis of Saline Degradation of chemical Properties of Sodic and Non sodic Soil and Remote Sensing Data

Aurass Muhi Taha; Saad Shaker Mahmoud; Ehab Kareem Obaid

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 67-81

The aim of this study is to diagnose the saline degradation of soil chemical properties , that is predicted by spectral indices which is derived from Landsat7 ETM+ DATA , where soil salinity , ESP% and SAR mapping , by multiregression analysis with generalized difference vegetation index (GDVI2) and salinity index (SI) , with high R2 significantly : 0.88 , 0.93 and 0.86 for each soil chemical properties respectively . Such saline degradation of soil classes scaling depends on correspond soil salinity value to ESP% and SAR value . The spatial analysis shows that Non degradation soils class (D0) reach to 5.55% from study area , salt affected soils class (D1) reach to 21.89% from the study area , sodium affects saline soils class (D2) reach to 44.47% from the study area and desert soils of saline class (D3) reaches to 28.09% from the study area .

The Allelopathic Effect of Sunflower Residue on the Emergence and Growth of Some Weeds and Field Crops and Soil Chemical Characteristics

Nabeel R. L; Abdl-Kareem H. A; Ahmed F.G

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 82-96

To investigate the allelopathic effect of sunflower residue on emergence and growth of some weeds, field crops and soil chemical characteristic,two experiments have been conducted during 2013 and 2014 at College of agriculture / University of Wasit . The first experiment is conducted in pots using CRD design to test the allelopathic effect of two rates of sunflower residue (3 and 6g per kg soil) on emergence and growth of wheat , barley , broad bean and six species of broad and narrow leaves weeds . The second experiment is applied in a field using RCBD design to study of sunflower residue effectiveness (rate 6 g per kg soil) on growth of broad bean and companion weeds , and some soil characteristics compared with Trifluralin herbicide( 600ml per dunam). Pots experiment result show a high significant effect of sunflower residue on weed suppressive, specially, narrow leaves species is compared with broad leaves weeds. Sunflower residue have significant effect on wheat and barley crops , while it has no significant effect on broad bean. Field experiment result show the same trend of sunflower residue effect on weed biomass and without significant effect with trifluralin herbicide treatments. However, it was an increased in dry weight of broad bean is compared with control and herbicide treatment. Positive effects of sunflower residue has appeared on availability of some minerals nutrient in soil such as nitrogen , potassium , calcium , magnesium , sulfur , and organic matter , while , lowering PH. electrical conductivity (EC), sodium and chlorine are slightly increased a result of sunflower residue, but not arrived critical level that has effect on the crop. In conclusion, sunflower residue could be used as a feasible and environmentally sound weed management and enhancement of soil characteristics and broad bean growth.

The Effect of Fertigation Urea and Organic Materials in Some of Growth Features and Calotropin in Leaves of Calotopis Procera

Hayyawi Wewa Attia; Sawsan kadhem kraidi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 97-105

The experiment has been conducted by using pots contain 15 kg of slit sand soil collection from one located in Al- Diwania river, Al-Qadisiya Province. The soil contains 750 sand, 200 silt and 50gm.kg-1 clay, bulk density 1.1 Mg m-3, Ec 2.7 ds.m-1 and pH7.1 , the available N,PandK15,10 and130 mg.kg soil-1 to study the effect of fertigation of urea and organic materials on some growth features and concentration of N,P and K % and calotropin µ.gm-1 in leaves of calotropis procera .
The experiment includes fertigation of urea ,organic materials, and mixed (urea+ organic materials) and the control. with 15 ton. ha-1 of organic fertilizer (Orgno Fert) as design (CRD). After 180 days from germination. The growth features, height of plant, diameter of stem, number of leaves. number of teller and concentration of N,P and K % and calotropin µ.gm-1 in leaves were estimated. LSD show superiority of mixed fertigation (dual) treatment for both practice followed by organic materials and urea respectively are compared with the control. Are increase with percentage of mixed fertigation (75.43, 56.62,58,97,39.94,14.29,38.88 and 37.59) % for height of plant, diameter of stem, number of leaves , number of tellers and concentration of N,P and calotropin in leaves respectively.

The Effect Urea on Nitrification Process in Some Soils of South of Iraq

Mohammed Saeed Haran

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 106-115

The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of different concentrations of urea-N on the amount of the available ammonium remained and that of nitrate formed so that to calculate the nitrification rates directly in the soil. Five concentrations of urea-N (0,75,150,225,300) ppm urea-N are used in a CRD factorial experiment with three replicates. Each treated soil is moistened to 90% of it’s field capacity and incubated at room temperature for forty days started during which the amount of nitrate formed was measured at a 10-day intervals water is added to maintain the moisture by weighing the plates every two days.
The following results are recorded:-
1-The results show that was ( 39.8%) of the added nitrogen for the soil taken from Karna, followed by Souq Al-Shiyokh (29.6%), and less than that is registered for the soils taken from Hay and Rafiaee (24.2% and 23.7%) respectively , which is then decreased in the following periods of incubation.
2-Generally the rates of nitrification in soil are proportional to the calcium carbonate and organic matter contents of the soil.

The Effect of Organic Matters on tow Cultivars of Rice (Anber-33 and Yassimen)

Ayeed Kadhim Maseer

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 116-126

A field experiment has been conducted at Diwaniya Governorat of 2010,2011 seasons . The study determines the effects of Agri ful on growth and yield of rice (oryza sativa) behavior of tow cultivars(Anber-33 and Yassimen).
The experiment has been conducted as a factorial experiment with R.C.B.D design with three Replicates to determine the best level of organic matter and best cultivars.
Results show that yassimen cultivar gives the first level (4liter h-400 liter water)of organic matter superior in giving higher grain Kg/Donum .due to the higher of filled panicle ,biological yield ,index harvest season 2010,2011 significantly higher than the other .
Anber-33 cultivar is superior in giving higer1000 grain significant weight higher than the other cultivar due to giving the lest mean of infertility percentage the interaction between the two cultivars and the three concretions of organic matter level is significant higher than the number of grain non filled panicle and infertility percentage and grain yield gm-1 .

Morphological Description of several Rice Varieties Using UPOV Guide

Mohamad Radhi Hassan; Alaa Hassan Mohammed; Khidhir Abbas Hameed; Flayeh Abed Jaber; Kadhim Hadi Jassim

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 127-138

Afield study has been conducted at Al-Mishkhab rice research station(Najaf Governorate) in 2011 rice season to study the morphological relationship and distribution of eight rice varieties(Anber33, Jasmine, Furat1, Barnamaj4, Mishkhab1, Mishkhab2, Anber Abbasiya, Anber Al-baraka). Transplanting method has been used for planting in rows(30×20)cm distance between seedlings into plots (5×5)m size. The study has been designed using RCBD in three replications. The recommended fertilizer has been added. At rice cycle, the weeds are removed by hand for three time. The UPOV description of 27 morphological characters has been used. The results obtained show that seven out of the twenty seven studied characters could be distinguish between the eight varieties.
The rest of the characters, show less variability among the eight varieties. Genetic similarity based on morphological characters showed that genetic similarity degree ranged from (0.81 to o.98). The genetic similarity between Anber abasiya, Barnamaj4, Mishkhab2, and Furat1 varieties were (0.93). There is a variability between Anber33 and Jasmine with other varieties which appear similarity at the distant is(0.91), these varieties are different as separate branches than the other. The Mishkhab1 and Anber Al- baraka appear similarity as a separate group at distant (0.98).

Economic Analysis for the Effect of Technical Development in Iraqi Agricultural Domestic Product During the Period (1990-2010)

Nagham .R. Mohmmad; Ali.D.K.Al-Hiyali

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 139-148

The agricultural sector in Iraq is an important sector and has been influenced decades by social and political conditions , and the promotion needed to address all these conditions , that stand as a barrier in front of its development , which causes a problem on the accumulation of debt . The study deals with the influential factors on the technical development in Iraqi agricultural Sector during of period ( 1990 – 2010 ) , to investigate some of components of digital indicators of agriculture sector in Iraq during ( 1990- 2010) , and to investigate reasons of deterioration of agriculture sector in aching economic development.