Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2015, Page 1-138


The Effect of Spraying Seaweed Extract and Amino Acids on Some Floral and Fruit Characters of Two Species of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Under Plastic Houses Conditions

Majeed Kadhem Al-Hamzawi; Intedhar Abbas Al-Zubaidy

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

The current experiment has been conducted at a plastic house belongs to the College of Agriculture / university of Al-Qadisiya during the growing season 2012-2013 to study the effect of spraying seaweed extract at 0, 3, and 6 ml.L-1 and amino acids at 0, 400, and 800 mg. L-1 and their combination on some floral and fruits characters of two cultivars of sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. cv. Flavio F1 and California wonder. Results show that there is a significant increase in flowers number per plant (51.14 and 33.99) and fruit set (70.99 and 60.30) for Flavio F1 and California wonder, respectively, due to the use of sea weed extract at 6 ml. L-1. Using amino acids at 800 mg. L-1 have the same effect. Also, fruit number, weight and volume, vitamin C content, total soluble solids and total sugars are significantly increased at the highest concentrations of sea weed extract (23.26, 119.70 gm, 438.94 cm3, 49.47 mg/100 ml fresh weight, 9.03% and 5.27, respectively for Flavio F1 cultivar and 16.41, 76.31 gm, 146.93 cm3, 31.03 mg/100 ml fresh weight, 5.84% and 4.50, respectively for California wonder cultivar). Same results show the highest concentration of the amino acids. As for the interactions, the combination of seaweed extract at 6 ml. L-1 and amino acids at 800 mg. L-1 give the highest values for all the parameters measured in comparison with the control treatment.

The Effect of Foliar Application of Seaweed Extract and NPK Fertilizer on some Growth Characteristics and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

Intethar Abbas Al-Zuobidy; Majeed K. Abbas Al-Hamzawi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 14-23

The current experiment has been conducted to study the effect of foliar application of seaweed extract (AIGA CIFO 3000) at three concentrations; 0, 1.5 or 6mg. L-1 and NPK fertilizer at three concentrations also; 0, 1.5 or 3 g. L-1 and their combination on some growth parameters and yield of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. cv. Selion. The experiment was carried out in a plastic house at the College of Agriculture University of Al-Qadisiya during the period from 28-12-2013 to 22-4-2014. Radomized complete block design has been used with three replications. The spray with seaweed and NPK fertilizer is done twice; the first one is after one month of planting in the permanent place, and the second one is after two weeks from the first spray. Plant height, number of branches, leaf chlorophyll content are have been measured. Also, early and total yield and fruit characters such as length, weight, and fruit diameter, total soluble solids and vitamin C are calculated. The results show that plant height and number of branches are increased significantly with seaweed and NPK treatments, especially at the higher concentrations. Also, chlorophyll content in leaves is also increased significantly at the higher concentration of the seaweed. The early yield is increased at both concentrations of both factors used, while there is a significant increase in total yield at the higher concentration of both factors in compare to control. The two concentrations of seaweed extract cause significant increase in fruit weight, while the treatments have variable effects with regard to fruit length and diameter. There was a gradual increase in TSS and vitamin C with the increase of the concentrations of both seaweed extract and NPK fertilizer.

A Field Study of The Reality of Home Gardens in Babylon Province

Mahmood H. Saleem; Hameed Mousa

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 24-35

The development and progression of many nations measured by its technical and aesthetic taste, the most beautiful cities in the world which infest beautiful landscaped gardens, the importance of gardening in general and, in particular, home garden, comes from being the beautiful frame for human habitation, add to it is the place which turn to in comfort time and a link between the human and the local environment.
The research aims at conducting an assessment of the reality of home gardens in Babylon province . questionnaire has been used to collect the data necessary to achieve the goals of research. The study found several results . The most important ones are : increasing the average home garden area which amounted to (79.1 m2) , the majority of home gardens (95.1%) is an front of the home, the dominant form of these gardens is the rectangle (45.1%), followed by box (32.6%), and most of the gardens (94%) planted with lial ,(76.6%) ornamentals and (56.5%) with fruit trees .

Different Plant Density by Transplanting Square Pattern With Wide Spacing and Its Influence on Yield and Yield Components

Khidhir Abbas Hameed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 36-43

A field experiment has been conducted in Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station at Najaf governorate during rice season 2010. The aim of this study is to know the effect of different planting density in the form of transplanting on the grain yield and its components of rice Jasmine variety. Five planting densities are used ] 7plant per m² equal (38×38)cm, 9 plant per m² equal (32×32)cm, 11plant per m² equal (30×30)cm, 13plant per m² equal (28×28)cm, 15 plant per m² equal (25×25)cm [. The experiment uses RCBD in three replications. Variance analysis results has revealed that the 15 plant per m² density is significantly increases the grain yield, active tiller number per m², sterile percentage per panicle, biological yield are in average (54.3%), (61.4%), (48.7%) and (50.2%) respectively, and decreased the filled grain number per panicle, and plant high are in average (29.2%), and (8.1%) respectively. Ultimately it can be concluded that the planting density is one of the important key factors to obtain higher yield. Accordingly, it can be recommended that the 15 plant per m² density of Jasmine rice variety planting by transplanting method is the most appropriate density in Iraq rice growing areas as it causes the maximum grain yield, and will contribute to cut down the need cost by reducing the seed rate.

The Influence of Some Rice Seeds Resources on Purity and Productivity

Mohammed Radhi Hassan; Khidhir Abbas Hameed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 44-53

A field study has been conducted at rice growing farmers who had used different seeds resources from Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station(AMRRS), Iraqi Seeds Company(ISC), and Farmer's Self Saved Seeds(FSSS) of two rice varieties Anber33 and Jasmine. The study aims of to knowing the roll of different rice seeds resources on shifting of purity and productivity of five rice growing seasons in Al-Mishkhab district at Najaf Ashraf province during 2010- 2014. The study includes all rice growing farmers who have used improved seeds from worthy resources or from self-saved seeds. The results showed that the areas and rice growers of improved seeds are increased annually. It is found that there is main differentiations in grain purity and productivity from these different resources, show increased in purity and productivity as average from (AMRRS) resource (100%) and (11%) respectively compared with (FSSS) resource. This result may be attributed to that few of rice growing farmers purchase their seeds from trusted resources, while many others were depend on selected seeds from their own fields(self saved seeds). The study recommends to improve new varieties at research station, producing good seeds quality, enhancing of seed production system with supporting by the government, implementing of new strategy to encourage and training the rice farmers on using the best scientific ways to seed selection, concentrating on extension of programs on using improved seeds, and innovating of seed production system and its laws.

The Effect of Potassium in Growth , Yield and Quality of Several Varieties of Sesame

Riyadh J. M. Al Maliky

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 54-63

A field experiment has been carried out in the field of experiments of the forest project of Kut during the period 2010 and 2011 season to compare the growth and yield of sesame varieties and the impact of adding potassium .
Follow the complete randomized block design dissident plot include three replicates the main plot ( Ishtar , Babylon , Rafedeen , Local),varieties while the sup plot include the addition of K2SO4 levels (zero , 100, 200 kg / h ) .

The results show cultivar surpass Rafedeen I n the average characteristics of plant height and weight of 1000 seeds long the first packet from the Earth to the seasonal succession, and the superiority of variety Ishtar in the characteristic of the number of packet in the stem president and yield plant and total yield the proportion of oil and yield oil for seasonal respectively it gives the highest mean yield oil 1351.56 and 1344.32 t /h as local cultivar surpasses characteristic of the number of packet in fruiting branches and the number of fruiting branches of two seasons respectively.
The gives treatment (200 kg / ha) of K2SO4 highest rate of prescriptions of the number of packet in the stem president and branches of fruiting and yield plant and total yield and highest rate of yield plant height and weight of 1000 seeds and oil content and yield oil .
A combination ( Ishtar variety with treatment 200 kg/ h of K2SO4 ) records the highest rate of the total yield to 619.00 and 611.67 kg / d for seasonal respectively, which is reflected on the quotient by giving it the highest rate of oil yield to 354.64 and 350.09kg/d seasonal sequentially .

Evolution Using of Four Liquid Vegetal Organic matter for Fertilizing of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Instead of chemical Fertilizer.

Ayid Kadhim Mseer; Khidhir Abbas Hameed; Flayeh Abed Jabri

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 64-77

Afield experiment has been conducted in the Mishkhab Rice Research station in Najaf Governorate during two consecutive rice seasons in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the use of four types of liquid vegetal organic fertilizer , namely : Tecno Kel , Agri M40 , Tecamin Algae and Tecamin Max on the quality and productivity of the yield .
Two rice varieties , namely : Anber-33 and Jasmin have been utilized to evaluate the effect of the organic fertilizers on the yield and growth characteristics .The treatment is compared with the chemical fertilizer recommended by the National program for Rice Development .
The experiment is designed using the Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) technique . The results reveal significant superiority of (Agri-M40) achieving grain yield of (5811) and (5571) kg/ha for the 2010 and 2011 experiment respectively .
These results are attributed to the improved qualities of this organic fertilizer such as the reduced rate of infertility , as well as the enhanced weight of the grains based on the scale of 1000 grains method , compared with the traditional chemical fertilizers commonly used in rice plantations in Iraq . Therefore , the use of extraction of vegetal manure for fertilizing the rice fields instead of chemical fertilizers is recommended to reduce the polluting impact on the environment .

Sorption and Desorption of Lead and Cadmium in Calcareous Soils Treated with Used Engines oils

Iman Abdulmahdi Oleiwi; Wafaa Sahib Abbood Alawsy

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 78-93

This study includes adsorption and desorption of Cadmium and lead and its relationship with soil polluted by used oils engines. The experiment carried out using soil samples from ten different locations in addition to the soils treated with used engine oils. Different concentrations of cadmium and lead were added in the levels of( 0, 1, 2 and 4) mmol L -1 with three replicates to achieve sorption and desorption process. Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to describe the sorption and desorption of cadmium and lead from soil samples. Desorption index (DI), The study found That the amount adsorbed increases with increased of added Cd and Pb and variation of different soils chemical and physical properties study of the soils and the amount of calcium carbonate, organic matter, the quantity and quality of clay, pH and ionic strength and the Values of desorption Index (DI) gave a good indication for the detection of the potential risk of pollution of Cadmium and Lead in calcareous soils, which can be transmitted to the surface and groundwater as the desorption index (DI) was calculated for soils contaminated with different levels of used engine oil (0, 5, 10, 20%), Sulaymaniyah and Aldorah soils were treated with different concentrations of cadmium and lead (0, 1, 2, 4) mmol L-1. It was observed that desorption Index increased with increasing the proportion of used engine oils. Highest DI was recorded at 20% addition of oil for each of the soils

The Effect of Partial Acidulated Phosphate Rock and Compost on Availability (Triticum aestivum L .)of Phosphorand Growth of Wheat

Dunya Faeq Munaf; Mohammed Abid Al-Robaiee

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 94-108

A greenhouse pots experiment has been carried out using silty clay loam soil collected from Agronomy department field/College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad to study the behavior and effects of adding different phosphate sources and compost on wheat growth and soil content of phosphor in two stages of wheat growth (tillering& spikes formation). Wheat seeds Triticumaestivum L. are grown in 26/11/2013. Completely randomized block design (CRD) has been used and three mineral phosphate sources، phosphate rock PR (Ecashat region، Iraq),partial Acidulated phosphate rock PR (40 %) (PAPR) and Tri super phosphate (TSP) has been added at one rate (100 kg. p. ha-1 ) by mixing with soil before planting with two levels of compost 0 and 20 mega gram.ha-1 .The available soil phosphor and wheat growth parameters such as plant height , number of tillers , dry weight of vegetation and root plants and total dry weigh of plant are measured at tillering stage and spikes formation stage.
The results show that addition of the mineral phosphate sources and compost and their interaction show significant increases in soil available phosphor values. TSP addition gives the best significant differences followed by PAPR while addition of the phosphate rock does not give asignificant difference compared with the control at the two wheat growth stages. The percentages of increases in the average of the soil available phosphor are 32.7% , 12.81% at tillering and spikes formation stages in TSP and PAPR treatments respectively, and 46.7% , 42.8 % at tillering and spikes formation stages respectively when compost was added and 13. 61% at tillering stage and 11.4 %at spikes formation stage in interaction of compost with TSP. The addition of the mineral phosphate sources and compost and together show positive significant effects in most of growth parameters such as plant height ,tillers number and roots dry weight at spikes formation stage and total dry weight of plant , weight of straw at tillering and spikes formation stages .The TSP treatment is the best followed by PAPR treatment in increasing the last growth parameters compared with PR at which non-significant increases are recorded .

The Effect of Peppermint Extract (Muntha piperita)and Incubation Period on the Growth of Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Jawad A.K. Kamal

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 109-117

The current research aims at studying the effect of the aqueous extract of mint plant (Muntha piperita) on growth of some fungi such as ; Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. The extract has been added to the PDA media at four concentrations 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in addition to the control treatment (standard PDA media only ) .
The results show the effectiveness of the aqueous extracts of mint plant in the inhibition of fungal growth . The highest inhibition is at 100% concentration of the extract , at which the growth of Rhizoctonia solani recorded values of colony diameter; 4.49,6.83, and 8.33 cm for the incubation periods of 1,2,or 3 days , respectively , in comparison with Aspergillus terrens which records the lowest growth values ; 1.82, 2.55, and 3.93 cm colony diameter for the same incubation period as above , respectively . However , the fungus Rhizoctonia solani is not affected by the extract treatments, especially after the incubation periods of 4,5,6,or 7 days .
The results also show significant effect of the media on fungal growth . The standard PDA medium gives the highest fungal growth values of colony diameter ; 3.65, 49.13, 5.85, 6.64, 7.23, and 7.72 cm for all incubation periods in compare with 100% concentration of the extract which records values of colony diameter; 3.71, 5.07, 5.89, and 6.64 cm for the same incubation periods , respectively . For the interaction , there is a significant effect of the combination of Fusarium oxysporum and 100% concentration of the extract for the incubation period of 1,2,and 3 days , while the combination of Aspergillus niger , and 100% concentration gave significant effect for the incubation period of 4,5,6, and 7 days in comparison with to other treatment .

The Impact of Nutrient of Different Qualities and Quantity of (Animal Tissue) on Some Biological Aspects of Blue Fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Saadi M. Hilal; Abbas k.Hamza

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 118-130

The present study includes the identification of the blow fly Calliphora vicina that forensically important and reared on the different types and amounts of decaying animal tissues, the different effects of the of the qualities and quantities of life on some aspects of the performance for C. vicina fly which included: the weight and period duration development of larval and pupal stage, percentage of adults that have succeeded in the emergence of the pupa casing, for the purpose of investigating the type and quantity of the preferred food for the insect that has all the different stages, according to the results of the current study , the best quantity of food for the larvae of the insect is 25 grams of beef liver each ten larvae which give the highest rate of weight per larva (83.2 mg) , it also increases the speed of development and growth, it also gives the highest percentages of adult emergence with significant difference as a compared with the rest of the other weights, the best animal tissue used as food for the larvae of that insect was lung tissue cow which gives higher larval and pupal weights and high rates of adult emergence with significant differences from the rest of the tissue quality used in the feeding larvae.

The Effect of Using Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Ginger and its Juice on Some Contaminating Microbes of Cow Milk

LAMES T. AL-HADIDI; NATIK H. AL-KUDSI; LUMA B. AHMED

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 131-138

The study has been conduct to investigated effect of ethyl alcohol extract and its juice on some contaminating microbes cow milk such as, Escherichia colli , salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens that have pathogen and spoiled effect on caw milk. The study has been carried out at College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad cooperation with Biotechnology and Research Center / University of Al-Nahrin. Concentrations of 1,2,3,4,5,10,20,30,40,50 % ethyl alcohol and ginger juice are prepared. Result show a positively inhibition correlating with concentration, being the halo diameter for S. typhimurium at 10 to 50 %concentration (11.19, 12.13 ,12.62 ,13.31 ,14.11 mm respectively). E. coli whereas its effect on are 8.96 , 10.90 , 11.37 , 12.12 , 12.56 mm for the same above concentration . On other hand, its effect on P. fluorescens, has tended to be lower value that is the concentration 10 to 50 % are 7.11 , 8.42 ,9.15 , 10.83 ,11.21 mm respectively. There is no significant effect on bacteria attributed the low concentration ( 1, 2 %). It has appear of that similar previous results when using sterilized by microbe filters. Inhibition is significantly increased by increasing concentration 5% probability . The results are not juice instead of extract and they are significant increment also with increasing the concentration in both sterilizing method. Hala diameter inhibition for filter sterilizing with 3% concentration are 0.00 ,2.01 and 3.3 mm for the three bacteria type respectively , while hala diameter inhibition with 50% concentration are 9.37, 11.91 and 12.70 mm for the three types respectively. Ginger juice which sterilized by autoclave for 3% is 0.00 mm while hala diameter inhibition with 50% are 8.29, 10.59 , and 11.35 mm for the three bacteria types respectively . Statistical analysis show significant differences in the effect of concentration between bacterial types for each concentration . In conclusion, the ginger extract and its juice have an inhibition effect on milk contaminating bacteria using 2%concentration. This effect is positively correlated with increasing concentrations for both mentioned matters .

The Evaluation of Using Toxicom on Broiler Performance During Mycotoxicosis

AL-ARAJI; FURKAN S; GROMOV; IGOR .N

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of (toxicom) 5gkg of ration against the toxic effects of mixed mycotoxins in growing broiler chickens .Total of 75 chicks ,one week old, are divided into 5 treated groups, 15 birds for each. The first group (G1) fed a contaminated ration with mycotoxin and supplemented with toxicom 5g/kg of ration and vaccinated with Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age. The second group (G2) is fed a ration contaminated with mycotoxin and vaccinated with IBD vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age and not supplemented with toxicom. The third group (G3)is fed a commercial broiler ration and vaccinated with IBD vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age . The fourth group (G4 ) is only fed a contaminated ration with mycotoxins. The fifth group (G5) is fed a commercial broiler ration as a control group. The mycotoxins in diet is analyzed by ELISA and the level is as follows : Aflatoxin B1 0.001 mg/kg ,Dezoxivalenol 1.24 mg/kg ,Zearalenon 0.068 mg/kg ,Ochratoxin 0.005 mg/kg ,T2 toxin 0.09 mg/kg ,Fuminisen B1 0.2 mg/kg. Results showed that toxicom significantly (P<0.05) protect chicken body weight, severity of clinical signs, morbidity and mortality rate. It is concluded which produced in Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine is protect chicken that this preparation is protect chicken bioavailability parameters in comparison with the other groups and is recommended to use it as antitoxic material Republic of Belarus.