Volume 5, Issue 2, Autumn 2015, Page 1-148

The Effect of Salinity and Compost on CO2 Released from Rhizospher of Bean and Tomato Plants

Radi . K.Al-Rashidi; Luma .S.J.Al-Taweel

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

The aim of this research is to study CO2 released in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plots experiment is performed in college of Agriculture / Al-Qadissiya University for the spring season 2013 ,the loamy sand soil has been used and cultivated Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salted (the natural salinity) , 6 , 8 and 10) ds.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 ,20)T.h-1 , and their interactions randomized complete design (RCD) is used with three replicates as compared with L.S.D test 5% level .
The soil has been incubated under the same treatments and the interactions in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere for both plants under incubated periods (2 , 4 ,7 and 14) day for calculated the CO2 released .
The results are summarized as follows :
1- The highest quantities of CO2 released are in salinity level 6ds.m-1 and decreases with the increasing of salinity levels and the lowest in the 10ds.m-1 level for both plants .
2- The adding compost levels leads to an increase of CO2 released , the CO2 released quantities are varied in vertical and horizontal rhizosphere developing and the CO2 released quantities in horizontal rhizosphere developing are highest than the vertical direction for both plants .

The Effect of Phosphate Fertilization, Biofertilizer and Humic Acid on Phosphorous and Iron Availability in Soil

Iman Qasem Mohammed; Hamad Mohammed Salih; Hadi Mohammed Kareem

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 15-25

This experiment is conducted in the Research Station, Abu-Ghraib , directorate of Agricultural Research , Ministry of Agriculture during the Autumn season of 2013, to investigate the effect of P fertilizer , bio fertilizer, humic acid and their interaction on the availability of, P and Fe, in the soil, their uptake, on yield and some yield components of corn(Zea mays L).
The RCBD has been adapted and each treatment has been replicated three times. The experiment treatments are two levels of P fertilizer, P0 (without adding P fertilizer), P1 (adding 30 kg P. ha-1), three levels of humic acid, H0 (without
adding humic acid), H1 (adding 20 kg H.A ha-1), H2 (adding 40 kg H.A. ha-1), and B0 (without inoculation of seed), B1 (inolculating seed with Bacillus), B2 (inoculating seed with Pseudomonas bacteria). P fertilizer and humic acid treatments are added and mixed with soil surface (10-15 cm). All experiment units have received 240 kg N ha-1 and 120 kg K ha -1 in three doses during the plant growth. Inoculated and other corn seed are planted in 10-7-2013 in plots of (3x3) m2 with distance between plants 0.25 and between lines 0.75 forming 4 lines and plant population 48 plant plot-1. The results can be summarized as follows:
In the field experiment, the main effects of P fertilizer, biofertilizer and humic acid are significant in increasing the availability of P and Fe in soil and eventually increasing their uptake by corn plant. However, more significant increases are associated with all possible interactions of these factors.
The highest availability of P, in soil is obtained at the interaction treatment of P1B1H2, and Fe at the interaction treatment P1B2H2 at both silking and harvesting stages of corn.

The Study of the Morphological and Chemical Properties of Accumulated Salts from Soils Beside the Highway

Raid SH.Jarallah

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 26-38

The present research aims to study the morphological and chemical properties of accumulation salts in swags beside the highway (used for sale in the local markets) and to study the different pollutants and its resources with these salts .
Six sites are chosen for the accumulations salts , three of them are present near cultivated soils and the three author present of near uncultivated soils between Al-Qadisiyah and Babylon governorates.
Two samples from the salts tumbles (are accumulated for sale) for all sites above for the depths (0-5) cm to likening the polluted from air and cars smokes) and (<5) cm (to improve the pollution have taken in their existing places) .
Soil samples are taken from all sites above beside the swages with two depths (0-15 and 15-30) cm .
All results can be summarized as :
• most of the salts crystal are coarse and big and white in our color , and they are affected by pollutants that have black and brown colors and some author colors . The crystals were intervening among themself from (2-6) crystals and some of than are small and single . The salts found beside the cultivated soils have high moisture percentage compared with the salts found beside the uncultivated soils .
• All salts samples have alkaili pH . The chemical properties are high values in (% Nacl , soluble ions : Na+1 , K+ , Cl-) are taken from swags beside the cultivated soils , while the values of soluble ions (Ca+2 , Mg+2 , HCo3-1) are decreased . The So4-2 values are varied among the sites .
• The lead and Cadmium pollution have taken place by air and cars smokes but the nitrate pollution have taken place by leaching from the beside soils and values are high in the swages beside the cultivated soils .
• The pollution in the soils beside the high way has high values in the surface layer (0-15) cm for pb+2 and Cd+2 compared with subsurface layer (15-30)cm, while the nitrate has high values as in the subsurface layer (15-30)cm.

The Effect of Brusite Interlayer Deposition on Transformations of Expanding Clay Minerals Toward Chlorite Minerals in Al Sabkha Soils in AL- Diwaniyah and Hilla in Iraq

Abaas Sebur Serwan Al-Wtaify; Raad Farhan Sh. AL-Jubori

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 39-54

This study is conducted to investigate the effect of brusite Interlayer deposition on transformations in clay minerals (2:1) toward mineral chlorite, through the choice of three pedons, two of them of sabakh soils(pedons1,2) and another of suitable agricultural(pedons3), in the regions of Diwaniyah and Hilla. X-rays show the occurrence of Chloritization in clay soils except Pedone soil of comparison by the presence of basal distance, which refers to the presence of Montmorilonite, or Vermiculate minerals in magnesium saturated and aerobically dried samples. Lack of expansion in magnesium saturated samples that are treated by Balothleen Klykol; its continuation in saturated potassium samples that are heated to the point of 350 °C, and its collapsing in the heated treatment to a temperature of 550 m° or its non-collapsing confirm the existence of bloated chlorite metal that emergs from the deposition of Brusite layer between the inner layers of Montmorilonite and Vermiculate.They also confirm Chloritization in the salty soils. Interpretation of the composition of Brusite layer and its higher stability on the continuation of the basal distance in aerobically dry samples to heated to 350 °, and it did not fully collapse in the heated treatments to 550 °. This happens in the clays of some of surface horizons of Sabakh soils. Spectrum infrared absorption (IR) shows the presence of frequencies of the association of magnesium hydroxide (Mg-OH) in saline soils refers to Brusite layer deposition between inner layers of clay minerals, which has been shown by X-ray curves. Spectral beam infrared shows the presence of magnesium hydroxide association in the comparison of pedon soil, and justifies that there are true chlorite clays in the soil

A Study of Morphology & Biotic Properties of the Soil of College of Agriculture–Al Noria

Jawad Abdul kadhem kamal

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 55-61

Three (pedon) of soil Qadisiyah University College of Agriculture, have been dag at Nouria area, to study the morphological and biological characteristics of college and using Linear statistics, has been found that soil is affected in color variation in soil and wet cases account and the horizon Ap toward the horizon c3 therefore it is found that the result of the approved Ap showed variation summit 0.51 as compared with other horizons . There is no variation upper horizons Ap, c1 while is there heterogeneity in sight c2 and c3 as much as 10 times found that the total bacteria of college, fungi and bacteria Azospirllum have caused marked variation horizon AP, c1, as is ) 14.34 1.52, 10.49),(21.38,17.68,32.40) compared with prospects c2 and c3 while the disappearance of presence of fungi in sight (Nill)c3.

Comparing Global Classifications of Water That Applied on Some of AL-Qadissiya Wells Water

Jabbar Salal Abd Al-Hamza

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 62-72

This study has been conducted to evaluate the quality of some of AL-Qadisyah province wells water and classify them according to global classifications. Nineteen wells in different locations have been pointed and assessed during the period between September 2012 to August 2013. Results shows differences in water quality depending on the locations; Electrical conductivity ranges between 1.60 and 19.82 ds.m-1, and Sodium adsorption ratio ranges between 2.03 and 17.47. Four global classifications have been used. The US Salinity Laboratory classification of the year of 1954 categorized most of these wells in category of C4-S1, which is high-salinity and too low sodic water. According to FAO classification of the year of 1985, some of the wells categorized in category of high-salinity and some other mild to moderate salinity. The same classification of the year of 1992 puts most of the wells in moderate salinity category, and characterizes their water as water of puncture and initial groundwater. According to the suggested classification by Ghliam (1997), 73% takes place between accepted to moderated salinity. These classifications state the applicability of using wells water for agricultural purposes in this area considering; good management practices using washing requirements around 15-20%, using good drain system, reducing ground water level to maintain the balance of saline soil, and cultivating salinity tolerant crops. This study could be used as an index when underground water wanted to be used for agricultural territory of AL- Diwanyia

Role of Potash Fertilization in Reduction of Water Stress in Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and Vegetative Growth Characteristics

W. A. T. El.Fahdawi; A. Y. Nasralla; A. S. Ati

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 73-86

A field study has been conducted during two autumn seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Al-Anbar province to determine the actual water use by mungbean crop (Vigna radiata L.) under water stress conditions and potassium fertilizer, as well as the assessment of crop and vegetative growth characteristics. Four treatments of irrigation are used (I1 watering when %50 of available water used (treatment measure), I2 watering when %25 of treatment measure used, I3 watering when %50 of treatment measure used and I4 watering when %75 of treatment measure used) and three levels of potassium Sulfate fertilizer (41.5% K) (40, 80 and 120 kg. ha-1) in addition to the control (K0) are used, it is given K1, K2 and K3 to the potassium levels respectively. A split plot in randomized complete block design is used with three replications to do this experiment. Treatments of irrigation are used as main plots while potassium fertilizer levels are used as sub-plot. Least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability is used to compare the means. The results showed superiority of the treatment of irrigation I1 in all characteristics (plant height and number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant and leaf area and leaf area index) in the first and second seasons, respectively, do not differ significantly for the treatment of irrigation I2 and all the characteristics and two seasons, respectively. While fertilization treatment K3 showed its superiority in all characteristics, do not differ significantly for the treatment of fertilization K2 in leaf area in the first season, the number of branches and number of leaves per plant in the second season. The interaction among I1K3, I2K3 and I1K2 significantly give the highest means for all plant characteristics without significant differences.

Effect of Molybdenum and Boron on Yield Components and Yield of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Kadhim H. Huthily; Fatima FAl-Jubouri

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 87-95

A field experiment has been conducted during the winter season 2014-2015 in Abu Gosrah in the district of Abu-Alkhaseeb which is located 14.5 km south of center of Basra province to study the effect of adding molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B) in the yield components and yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) var. Luz de Otono. A factorial experiment is carried out with the design of randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates, and includ two factors the first includes macerating seeds with three concentrations of molybdenum (0, 5 and 10 mg l-1) , and the second factor is spraying boron which includes three concentrations ( 0, 25 and 50 mg l-1 ), which are added to the plant in the form of boric acid (17.4% B).
The results show that macerating the seeds of broad bean with 10 mg l-1 molybdenum has led to a significant increase in the number of pods per plant , number of seeds in pod and the percentage of protein, also it gives the highest seed yield ( 3316 kg ha-1) and has reached up for the control by 36%. The spray of boron show significant superiority at the level of 50 mg l-1which give the highest number of pods per plant , number of seeds per pod and protein content of seeds, also it gives the highest value for seed yield (2921 kg ha- 1), which is not significantly different from the level of 25 mg B l-1 . The impact of the two nutrient is negative on the weight of 100 seeds and the highest weight has been obtained by control treatment. The overlap between the two factors show significant effect in the number of pods in plant ,the percentage of protein and the highest yield of seeds which reached is 3803 kg ha-1 by using 10 mg MoL-1+50 mgBL-1

The Effect of Bio-Fertilization in Growth and Yield four Two Types of Sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench

Kadhim Hassan Huthily; Hashem Rashed Maje; Eman Ala Al-deen Gaze

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 96-105

A field experiment has been conducted during the spring season of 2013-2014 at a private field in Al-Qurna county in clay loam soil with E.C interaction 3.2 ds.m-1 to study the effect of interference between bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter chroococcum) and two types of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).
The experiment is carried out by using three levels of bio-fertilizer {no vaccine, treatment first strain of Azotobacter (A1), and the second strain of Azotobacter (A2)}and the two types of sorghum local variety (Kafair) and the American hybrid ( NK8817). the experiment is designed by R.C.B.D. in a split plot design in three replicates, bio-fertilizer are in the main plots ,while the sorghum varieties are in the sub.plots.
The results show that application of Azotobacter chroococcum bacteria cause significantly and increase in the seeds number per head, weight of 1000 grain , plant yield, grain yield, percentage of protein and protein yield , with no significant difference between Azotobacter A1 of Azotobacter A2 It gives grain yield reached to ( 3908.9 and 4030.7 ton h-1 ) respectively.
The result also show that there are significant differences between the two cultivated varieties, variety Kafair is superior with protein yield while NK8817 variety is superior with seeds number per head , weight of 1000 seeds ,plant yield and grain yield and percentage protein and it gives grain yield reached to 3831.8 ton h-1 .
There is a significant interaction between bio-fertilizer and Cultivated varieties, the NK8817 variety which is treated with the second strain of Azotobacter A2 gives high grain yield reached to 4431.4 ton h-1.

The Impact of Bio fertilizer (EM1) and the Different Levels of Nitrogen and Mixed Chemical Fertilizers Addition on the Yield of Rice and it's component

Karim M. Bhiah

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 106-114

A field experiment is carried out during June to November, 2014 to study the impact of chemical fertilizers with biofertilizer (EM1) on the yield of rice and its components (Oryza sativa L.), cv.Yasamin. The experiment is done using Completely Randomized Block Design with three replicates. There are four treatments of mixed fertilizers, urea and biofertilizer (EM1) that is used in this study, T1 (recommended dose of chemical fertilizer for rice), T2 (biofertilizer + 1/4 recommended dose of chemical fertilizer for rice), T3 (1/2 recommended dose of chemical fertilizer for rice) and T4 (biofertilizer + whole recommended dose of chemical fertilizer for rice). Significantly, increases are observed in seeds per panicle, 150.9, number of tillers.m-2 462 and grain yield, 5.31 Mg. ha-1 in T4 treatment). Using biofertilizer (EM1) reduces spikelet sterility to 4%.

The Effect of Organic and Nitrogen Fertilizers on Yield and Its Component of Rice Variety Amber 33 (Oryza sativa L.) .

R. A. H. Jassim

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 115-123

A field experiment is conducted at Al – Mishkhab rice research station in Al – Najaf Governorate during summer seasons 2013 and 2014 to study the effects of organic matter and the chemical N fertilizer to reduce chemical N fertilizer and determine the best dose for both fertilizers to give the best grain yield and growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Amber 33 variety . Treatments include four level of organic matter ( 0 , 5 , 10 , 15 ) ton .h-1 at sub plots and three levels of nitrogen fertilizer ( 0 , 50 , 100 ) kg .N . h-1 at main plot . split is conducted with three replicates . The following results are obtained:
1-Superiority of nitrogen at 100 kg .N h-1 in grain yield ( 5480 , 5320 ) kg h-1 and the weight of 1000 grain ( 20.2 , 20.1 ) gm. and the number of grain per spike ( 170 , 159 ) and the number of spike in M2 ( 349 , 326 ) and the biological yield ( 5926 , 5041 ) kg h-1 and spike length in the second season 26.2 cm and plant height ( 143 , 135 ) cm as compared with control treatment for both seasons.
2-The organic matter at 15 ton h-1 treatment has significant effect on the plant height ( 129 , 133 ) cm and the length of spike ( 26.4 , 26.6 ) cm and biological yield ( 5655 , 5584 ) kg h-1 and grain yield ( 5072 , 5436 ) kg h-1 and the number of spike in M2 ( 322 , 362 ) as compared with control treatment of both seasons.
3-The interaction between levels of organic matter & levels of nitrogen application is affected significantly in grain yield , the number of spike and the plant height at 15 ton .h-1 and 100 kg .N.h-1 of both seasons .

The Evaluation of the Activity of Some Algae and Their Extracts on the Control of Stem Canker of Potato Caused by Rhizoctonia solani

Alaa. E. Hasan; D.B. Abd al-Hadi; Ali H. Demin; Jawad A.Kamal

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 124-133

This study is conducted at laboratories of College of Agriculture- university of Kufa in order to evaluate three algae Microcystis sp., spirulina eplatensis and sarconema sp. and their organic extracts against Rhizoctonia solani pathogen .
The antagonistic ability of Microcystis is effective against R.sloni because it gives colony diameter 7mm , with inhibitory percentage 65% , as compared with control which gives 20mm of colony diameter .The results revealed that methanol extract was more effective in reducing the viable cells of R.solani which give 28.66 x 104 CFU/ml as compared to 32.40 x 104 CFU/ml at the control .Viable cells of R.solani are reduced with the application of Microcystis which is 26.46x104 CFU/ml as compare with spirulina platensis and sarconema which give 29.18 and 28.14x 104 CFU/ml respectively .
The ethanolic extract of Microcystis sp. has the superiority of reducing colony diameter of R.solani , when gives inhibitory zone 26mm as compared with acetone as an extract of the same alga which gives inhibitory zone 20mm

The Level of Knowledge Level of Breeders in the Field of Management and Breeding of Cattles in Central and Southern Governorates of Iraq

Mohammed Talib Hadi; Ashwaq Abdul Al Razzaq Naji

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 134-148

The research aims at identifying knowledge level of breeders in the field of management and breeding cattle in central and southern provinces of Iraq , The research community cover of ( 13 ) provinces of the central and southern area of Iraq . ( 50% ) of those provinces in which ( 7 provinces ) have been chosen as a sample ( Baghdad , Karbala , Najaf , Wasit , Qadissiya , Muthana and Basrah ) . ( 0.5% ) of the Cattle breeders as a random cluster sample is chosen which consist (188) of the total of (36827) breeders to achieve the aim of the research questionnaire has been designed to collect data to measure knowledge level of breeders cattle , consists of eight axis as (Cows feeding , harboring cows , cows health , reproductive care , care of the cows, modern of births care , the environment , field records) , the items constituent these axis amount (76) items. The research result reduction knowledge level of breeders in the special operations in management and breeding cattle , if was (62.8%) of breeders Within of class few knowledge level , The research recommends intensifying extension of the activities in the special management and breeding cattle with the specialists participators in livestock units and veterinarians in order to raise the level of knowledge to cattle breeders

The Impact of the Sodium Thiocyanate on Preserving the Raw Cow Milk

Najim Hadi Najim; Mohamed Khadum Wali

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

The present study is planned to evaluate the keeping quality of raw milk by activation of its natural lactoperoxidase system (LPS) at about 3 h of the morning milking. The raw milk samples (about one liter each) are collected from the animal field of college veterinary university of Baghdad.
The present study shows the significant increase (p˂0.05) in the total aerobic bacterial counts and coliform counts of control milk samples under storage temperatures. The average mean log value of total aerobic bacterial count increases significantly in the control milk samples from the starting initial count of 6.757 to 9.158 and 8.259 cfu/ml after 48 h of milk storage at ambient and refrigeration temperatures respectively. There is significant reduction from 9.158±0.379 cfu/ml in the control milk sample to 6.593±0.126 cfu/ml in stabilized milk sample that storage at ambient temperature and from 8.259±0.135 cfu/ml to 6.266±0.125 cfu /ml in control milk sample storage at refrigerated temperature after 48hours. Average mean log value of coliform count is increased significantly in the control milk samples from the starting initial count of 4.852 to 7.387 and 6.933 cfu/ml after 48 hours of milk storage at ambient and refrigeration temperatures respectively . There is significant reduction from 7.387±0.053 cfu/ml in the control milk sample to 4.852±0.170 cfu/ml in stabilized milk sample that storage at ambient temperature and from 6.933±0.177 cfu/ml to 5.066±0.061 cfu/ml in control milk sample storage at refrigerated temperature after 48hours.