Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring 2016, Page 1-174


Characterization and Classification of Soils Cultivated Rice in the Provinces of Al-Qadisiyah and Najaf / Iraq

Aola S.R. Abokhella; A.K.Ali Al-Hasseiny

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

To study the characterization and classification of soils cultivated with rice in the provinces of the Qadisiyah and Najaf has four pedons have been chosen in which three of them are planted with rice and other non-planted rice (pedon compared) in Qadisiyah province and four other pedons three planted rice and fourth non-planted rice (planted with Palm) in Najaf Governorate . Results of morphological description or a discrepancy in some morphological traits, especially construction and texture and porosity and the sequence of horizons while there is a clear contrast in color as well as in the case of hyperpigmentation as a result of the activity of redox processes in soils cultivated rice and reflected the color of the soil , The results Explain the rule of the separate with soft (silt and clay) in soil cultivated rice and sand values ranged (46.0-520.0) g. Kg-1 and silt (73.0-776) g. Kg-1 and clay (52.0-175.0) g. Kg-1 Because of the seasonal water and increase soil weathering minutes of movement with depth , increase the PH in soils cropped due to calcium carbonate melt wetland environment that raises the degree of soil interaction , EC decrease as a result of melting and movement of salts out of the soil body. Soils different in calcium carbonate content and this is due to the situation of seasonal water and melting of limestone and redistribute soil body where calcium carbonate content increased with depth due to the activity of removing Tartar and deposition in the lower horizons . It is noted a decrease in calcium sulfate content in cultivated soils as compared with uncultivated soils as a result of the case of water which works to dissolve gypsum. Pedons soils are classified in this study to the order of Aridisols and classified pedons Non-cultivated rice soils under the order Gypsids in pedon (1) and the great group Calci gypsids The presence of Calcic horizon in those soils with diagnosed under Group Typic Calci gypsids . Either pedon (9) results indicated to under order Calcids and Group great Haplocalcids and under Group Typic Haplocalcids .Both the soils planted with rice are classified under the order named Argids to the result of diagnostic horizon mud diagnosed group great Calciargids the presence of horizon Calcic in soils as identified under the group known as aquic Calciargid due to water conditions in the soil during the year.

Relationship Between the Content of Clay and Morphological Characteristics of Soils in the Central Alluvial Plain

Amal Radhi Jubier Alkryishi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 16-28

The study area is selected in the central plain located between sedimentary latitudes 32°19'30.00" to 33°01'30.00" North and longitudes 43°39'00.00" to 44°52'30.11" East . Alpedonat sites have been identified by the GPS device, and mapped the content of clay soils horizons through studying GIS , as well as of the morphological characteristics mapped after converting them to quantitative attributes ( colour ,structure , consistency) to high clay content maps and this ensures that color appears dark more than the other soil structure of the clay content distributed maps that most construction rule is for the larger , this ratio is back to the type sub angular blocky and is prevalent in soils of arid and semi-arid of the shown the results of agent distribution maps of soil vary in distribution to content of clay , but is higher in clay content. This underlines the importance and the relevance of the content of clay in the soil morphological characteristics and importance in identifying many of the hydraulic and pneumatic relations as well as its importance for agricultural and engineering purposes .

Evaluation of Suitability of Al – Jazira Project Lands for Wheat Cultivation

Ahmed Muhaimeed; Nada Farook Aboud; Kasam A .Al kassey

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 29-36

Al –Jazira project located in Nainawa governorate is selected to represent the supplemental irrigated cultivation system in north Iraq in order to study Land suitability for wheat cultivation. The dominant soils of the project include Inceptions with %34 and Mollisols with % 42.83 and Soil associations %22.78 of the total area. Some historical soil data have been collected from previous work done in 1980 and climatic data are collected for the last thirty years. Soils and climate (temperature, rainfall) characteristics are evaluated for wheat growing by using FAO, (1976) and SYS et al system (1993) which has been developed by the Italian institute in Florence (2012). Soil properties are weighed to depth 100 cm. The results indicate that most of the project areas show high degree of suitability for wheat growing with the suitability classes including S1 with %97.31 , S2 with % 2.3 from the total area of the project. Organic carbon is moderately limited factor for wheat. The suitability is 60 results which indicates that climate suitability for wheat (temperature, rainfall) is high suitable (S1) temperature and moderately suitable S2 for ( rain fall )

Effect of Salinity and Compost on Some Enzymes Activity in Rizhosphere of Bean and Tomato Plants

Luma .S.J.Al-Taweel; Radi . K.Al-Rashidi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 37-57

The aim of this study is to discover the activity of extracellular enzymes (amidase , alkaline phosphatase and Arylsulphatase) in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plot experiment is performed in college of Agriculture / Al-Qadissiya University for the spring season 2013 ,the loamy sand soil was used to cultivate Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salted the natural salinity) , 6 , 8 and 10 ds.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 ,20)T.h-1 , and their interactions randomized complete design (RCD) is used with three replicates used with L.S.D test 5% level .The laboratory experiment is performed to determine the all enzymes activity above for all treatments .

The results are summarized as :
1- Enzyme activity decreases with increasing the salinity levels for all enzymes used in this study and the salinity level 10 ds.m-1 is the lowest. The arrangement of activity values as
Alkaline Phosphatase  Amidase  Arylsulphatase
2- The enzyme activity increased with increasing the added compost level 20Ton.h-1 and its interactions with salinity levels , and it has positive role to reduce the negative effect of salinity and it increases the activity in all treatments as well as the dead plant treatments .
3- The enzymes activity varied in rhizosphere developing directions and the plants are different in the site of highest activity , the enzyme activity in horizontal rhizosphere developing direction is highest than the vertical direction .
4- The enzyme activity in Tomato rhizosphere is the higher than Bean rhizosphere in all enzymes without the alkaline phosphatase in all rhizosphere vertical and horizontal directions .

Effect on Response of Different Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Different Levels of Organic and Chemical Fertilizey

Ali Salem Hussein; Mohammed Saeed Haran

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 58-69

A field experiment is carried out in one of the rice fields in Al-Shatra district during the summer season 2013-2014 to study the effect of response of varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) (parents 1 , pond , jasmine 4, research , Firat and ward 33) to five levels of mixed organic and chemical fertilizers.
Results of the study show that the six cultivars differed significantly among the qualities studied. The superiority of class parents in the average number of days from planting to 50% flowering (115.26 day) and an area of flag leaf (39.30 cm2) and the length of Dahlia (30.24 cm) and the number of grains Baldalia (149.30 pill) while outweigh class Ward 33 in the average number of days from 50% flowering until physiological maturity (33.50 day) and plant height (116.60 cm) and weight of thousand grain (21.73 g) and holds the grain (4.04 mecagerm.h -1) and Winning bio (9.26 mecagerm.h -1) and harvest index (43.58%).
The results show that the mixing 3 mecagerm.D-1 of the organic fertilizer with 33% of the chemical fertilizer F4 and mixing of mecagerm.D-1 of the organic fertilizer (F5) and the level gives the highest rate in holds grains (3.92 mecagerm.h -1) and Bioloyical yeild (9.14 mecagerm.h -1) and harvest index (42.92 %) as compared with the other level of the treatment.
The results show that treatment of (ward 33) with F5, F4 treatment gave the highest quotient of grain and winning biological and harvest index and the number of grains in the Dahlia and plant height.
Tnteration of spannt gives F5& F4 treatments the highest rate and the superiority of moral character in the number of days from planting to 50% flowering, as well as the length of Dahlia and space science paper.

The Effect of the Fertilization with Different levels of DAP Fertilizer in Phenolic Compounds, Chlorophyll and NPK Contents in Leaves of Calotopis procera

Hayyawi wewa attia; Nada Salim Aziz Teachers; Bushra Mahmood Alwan

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 70-78

An experiment is carried out by using pots containing 20 kg of slit sand soil collected from one location in Al- Diwania river of Al-Qadisiya province to study the effect of different levels of DAP fertilizer in contents of leaves of Calotopis procera from phenolic compounds, total chlorophyll and (NPK) % .
The experiment includes the application of four different levels of DAP fertilizer (100,200,300,400) ((18:46NP) kg DAP ha-1 to tree of Calotopis procera after selecting then at one year age as design (CRD). and three replicates ,the concentration of N,Pand K % the phenolic compounds ( Vanillic acid , Epicatechin, P-coumaric , Ferulic acid, Queretin-3- β-glucoside , Rutin) mg g-1 extract and total chlorophyll in leaves are estimated. LSD at level 0.05 show superior of 400 kg DAP ha-1 level on the other levels ,300 kg DAP ha-1 and 200 kg DAP ha-1 compared with 100 kg DAP ha-1 level. The percentage of phenolic compounds such as are increased Epicatechin (137.18,87.20,48.72)% respectively with significant differences .the consecration of P-coumaric in leaves are increased .percentage at (43.82,85.39,92.13)% to the second, third and the fourth levels as compared with the first level ,the high level of 400 kg DAP ha-1 is superiority N,P and K uptake the percentage at (80.99,155.00,65.38) % compared with the first level.

Interactive Effect of Different Phosphoure Levels, Biofertilizer and Organic Fertilization on Phosphorus Availability and Uptake in Corn Plant (Zea mays L.)

Iman Qasem ohammed; Hamad M. Salih; Hadi M . Kareem

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 79-89

This experiment aims at testing the activity of biofertilizer, level of phosphorus and humic acid on P availability in the soil. The experiment has been executed in wood shade house of Soil and Water Resource Department College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib. Soil is collected from the soil surface (0-30 cm) of the field experiment, passed through the sieve of 4 mm then sterilized with methylbromide and packed at the rate of 5 kg soil / plastic pot.
The experiment involves three levels of P fertilizer (0 , 30 and 60 kg P ha-1) P0, P1 , P2, three levels of humic acid (0 , 20 and 40 kg H.A. ha-1), and two levels of biofertilizer BO (seed not inoculated) and B1 (seed inoculated with biofertilizer) and all possible combinations among these variables. There are 18 treatments each replicated three times. The N and K fertilizers were added to all experiment units at the rate of 240 kg N and 120 kg K . ha-1 . The RCD is adopted. P fertilizer and humic acid are added and mixed with soil surface in pots, and corn seed of biofertilizer treatments inoculated. Corn seeds of Var. 5018 are planted at the rate of 8 seeds pot-1 in 10-5-2013, then seedling thinned to 4 plant pot-1 after 10 days from planting. The results can be summarized as following:
1. The results from pot experiment show active biofertilizer as there is an increase in availability of P in the soil and its uptake by corn plant. Moreover, there are significant increases in dry weight, weight of corn roots by inoculating corn seed with biofertilizer.
2.There is no significant difference between 30 kg P ha-1 and 60 kg P ha-1 on the most of the studies variables (above).

The Effect of Proline Acid Spray on Sunflower Crop (Helianthus Annuus.L) to Reduce Water Stress and Maintaining Irrigation Periods

Hashim R.Majid; Shaker E. Al-Bahadly

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 90-102

Field experiment has been conducted during 2014 season in farmer's fields in the Auffia district 14 km southwest of Missan province in mixtures of mud soil. The objective of the study is to determine the response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus.L) hybrid- flame to Proline amino acid to reduce water stress and maintaining irrigation periods . The experiment has been executed in split-plot in R.C.B.D design with three replicates. The main plots include irrigation periods (every 10 days; every 15 days and every 20 days). while the sub-plots include Proline treatments (50 mg L-1 ; 100mg L-1 and control treatment without spray ). After farming and applying the studied factors plants name reached to physiologic maturity. the outcome of results are analyzed statistically and compared with averages using L.S.D. test.
The results show surpasses that spraying Proline 100 mg L-1 concentration compared with the treatment without spraying in the characteristic of growth and quality and give high scours.
Also the result show the surpasses of irrigation every 10 days in the characteristic of growth and quality as compared with periods of irrigation (every 20 days) which gives less results. The results show that there is a moral interfere for Proline concentration and irrigation periods in most of studied characteristics and the opportunity to reduce irrigation number (irrigation every 15 days) when spraying plants in Proline acid 100 mg L-1 . This would save approximately 44% from irrigation water under the current environmental condition of Auffia-Missan.

Role of Potash Fertilization in Reduction of Water Stress in Moonbean (Vigna radiata L.) and Yield Components

A. Y. Nasralla; A. S. Ati; W. A. T. El.Fahdawi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 103-115

The field study is conducted during two autumn seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Al-Anbar province to determine the actual water use by mungbean crop (Vigna radiata L.) under water stress conditions and potassium fertilizer, as well as the assessment of crop and growth characteristics. Four treatments of irrigation are used (I1 watering when %50 of available water used (treatment measure), I2 watering when %25 of treatment measure used, I3 watering when %50 of treatment measure used and I4 watering when %75 of treatment measure used) and three levels of potassium Sulfate fertilizer (41.5% K) (40, 80 and 120 kg. ha-1) in addition to the control (K0) are used, it is given K1, K2 and K3 to the potassium levels respectively. A split plot in randomized complete block design was used with three replications to do this experiment. Treatments of irrigation are used as main plots while potassium fertilizer levels are used as a sub-plot. Least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability is used to compare the means. The treatment of I1 and I2 significantly gives the highest mean for yield and yield components without significant difference between them. I1 treatment gives the means( 35.26 and 33.83 pods. plant-1 ), the length of pod (7.49 and 7.41 cm), (7.35 and 6.62 seed. pod-1), 100-seed weight (4.07 and 3.78 gm), (1080.10 and 909.80 kg. ha-1) for the first and second seasons respectively, but I2 treatment has given the mean (34.09 and 32.64 pods. plant-1 ), (7.26 and 6.52 seed. pod-1), 100-seed weight (3.95 and 3.61 gm), (1047.10 and 881.60 kg. ha-1) for the first and second seasons respectively. Moreover K3 treatment significantly gives the highest means for yield and yield components (31.39 and 29.05 pods. plant-1 ),(6.88 and 6.04 seed. pod-1), 100-seed weight (4.03 and 3.67 gm), (895.30 and 743.10 kg. ha-1) for the first and second seasons respectively, The interaction among I1K3, I2K3 and I1K2 significantly gives the highest means for all plant characteristics without significant differences.

Study of the Physicochemical Properties and Suitability of Some Water Sources and Their Impact on Tomato Lycopersicum esculntum Mill.

Saad Wali Alwan

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 116-129

The study was designed to determine the physical and chemical properties of some water sources and investigate their suitability in irrigation. The samples are taken from stored and stagnant water in a pool (20x10x2 m) to irrigate agricultural fields in the College of Agriculture, University of Qadisiya, it is compared with sewage and tap water also water reverse osmosis was used as a control. The water samples are categorized depending on the values of electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio according to US Salinity Laboratory. The effect of four types of water also is studied in plant of tomatoes Lycopersicum esculntum conditions under the canopy by some external morphological characteristics and physiological as stressed indicators.
Electrical conductivity values are ranged between (0.066- 1.856 ds.m-1). The pH values are between (3.7 - 3.8) and the total suspended solid are ranged from (0.01- 87.85 mg / L, while the results have been recorded between (103.4- 1120) mg /l of total solids of the treated water and wastewater respectively. The results of chemical analyses show that total alkalinity and hardness of wastewater samples are very high (445.35 mg/l and 603.16 mg/l), while decreases to (27.6 mg/l and 41.65 mg/l) for RO treated water respectively. The concentrations of cations (Na, Ca2, Mg2, K) are between (- 37.9 - 77.3) and (8.5-37.57) and (15.3- 179.56) and (66.6-255.7) mg/l for each element in the treated water and wastewater respectively. While anions (, PO4, Cl, NO2, NO3, SO4 record high ranges for wastewater between (47.9- 477.81) and (6.8-465.28) and (0.16- 59.41) and (7.59-234.96) mg/l respectively. The study also shows that the soluble sodium percentage records the highest value in the treated water (54.5%) and the lowest value is detected in the pond water (38.32%). The sodium adsorption ratio is ranged between (2/1- 4/30) for RO water and wastewater respectively, While the exchangeable sodium percentage is ranged between (0.45-87.16) for both types of water respectively.
The results shows the total chlorophyll values were reduced in plant of tomatoes irrigated with wastewater to (3.2 mg/g fresh weight) while the highest value is recorded 5.2 in irrigated plants with RO water. However, chlorophyll a values are ranged between (0.94-1.37) mg/g in irrigated plants with wastewater and RO water treatment respectively, while chlorophyll b values are ranged from (0.39-0.52) and the ratio of Chl. a / Chl. b. was 2.33-2.64 in the pond water and treated water respectively. The total content of carotenoid is decreased to (0.08) mg/g of fresh weight in the wastewater treatment to 0.56 mg/g in RO water treatment, the chlorophyll stability index was between (90.4-62.7%) in irrigated plants with tap water and sewage water respectively. The percentage of permeability to electrolytes increase to (49.8%) in irrigated plants with pond water.

The Effect of Palm Trees Root System on the Carbonate Metals and Clay Particle Distribution in Some Soils of the Alluvial Plain.

Ayad Kadhum Ali; Manar Alwan Ismail; Muhanned Salam Abbas

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 130-143

Eight Pedones distributed in four regions of central Iraq are chosen. Pedone (1) represents Port soil and seven Pedones represent palm groves soils, to study the genesis and composition of the soils with large old palm groves in areas of central Iraq .The Pedones are revealed and described morphologically and obtained the excited soil samples from each horizon for the purpose of conducting physical and chemical analyses. This study shows a discrepancy in the morphological characteristics of the comparison Pedone with palm groves Pedones. It is noted that the existence of diversity in the distribution of volumes of soil minutes . The results show that in some palm groves Pedones that the distribution of total and active clay particle showed certain pattern which represents an increase with the depth as compared with the soil of comparison Pedone that does not show any pattern of distribution, and that due to the role of the root system Corynebacterium of palm trees. That helped in the transmission of the total and active clay particle .The results also refer to the movement of total metals and active carbonate. The results of the chemical characteristics also showed that the degree of soil reaction to that of the comparison Pedone is high as compared with palm groves Pedones and generally ranged from the valuesof the pH between (6.70-8.10) and decline is observed in the proportion of electrical conductivity prospects of palm trees Pedones ranging between (0.45-40.5), while the values of calcium carbonate are ranged (159-350) and the active carbonate are (36-85).

The Effect of Ricinus Communis and Eucalyptus sp. Extractions and Trichoderma harzianum on the Soil Fungi Fusarium sp and Rhizoctonia sp in the Laboratory and Field

J.M.Jaber

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 144-156

This Study has been conducted at a laboratory college of Agriculture of Al – Qadisiya – University .
The Result show that there is a significant effect of Ricinus communis and Eucalyptus sp. and Trichoderma harzianum in Potato Dextrose agar (PDA) and the hot water extraction is more effective than cold water extraction . So the fungi spores have suspension of a significant effect on the growth indicators for Ricinus communis in the field

The Effects of Adding Goat Milk to the Diet of Rabbits Treated with Amoxy-Clavulanic Acid on Some of Its Productive Physiological , Biochemical , and Immunological Characterstics.

K.N; Taher; Al-Kauzai; Allawi.L.D; H.B.K; Al-Jiashi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 158-165

This study is undertaken during the period from 12-3-2011 to 29-4-2011 to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with goat milk on some productive (live body weight , weight gain , feed consumption and feed conversion ratio). Physiological (Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume), biochemical (Total protein , Albumin and globulin) and immunological (white blood cells and percent of lymphocyte cells ) traits of rabbits . A total of (32) female rabbits between 2-3months with age an average initial weight 1406.250) gms are randomly distributed into four equal groups (8) rabbits per each as follows:
1- Control group (C ) : fed base diet contains (12%) protein without any addition .
2- First treatment group (T1) : fed the some basa diet + 5mg amoxiclavulanic acid / kg body weight .
3- Second treatment group (T2) : fed the same basa diet +5mg amoxi-clavulanic acid / kg body weight +5ml raw goat milk .
4- Third treatment group (T3) : fed the same basal diet +5ml raw goat milk .
The study has continued for (5) weeks .
The results of the statistical analysis show that there are significant differences in body weight (P0.05) between (T3) and other treatments (1783.50, 1508.75, 1770.25 and 1852.75) gm respectively , weight gain and feed conversion ratio . Also the results reveal that there are significant differences (P0.05) in hemoglobin concentration between (T3) and each of (T1 and T2) while there are no significant differences between (T3) and control treatment . treatment (3) show a significant superior (P0.05) in total protein concentration (88.16) gm/L as compared with other treatment and it is also observed a significant difference (P0.05) between (T1) and other treatments in white blood cells .
In conclusion rabbit diet supplementation with goat milk seem to improve the productive homological , and immunological traits .

Clay Cracks Properties in Some Soils of Mesopotamia plane / Iraq

Raid .SH.Jarallah; S.K. Essa

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 165-174

In order to investigate clayey cracks and their properties. Seven soils sites (Afak Vertic-Torrifluvent , Al-Diwaniyah Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Taleea Typic-Torrifluvent , Babel Vertic-Torrifluvent , Agriculture college Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Wahda Vertic-Torrifluvent and Al-Raid project Typic-Torrifluvent) were chosen for this study. Some field morphological properties of cracking mass (numbers of cracking mass, crack's length , crack's width , crack's depth , thickness of hard part , thickness of friable part , surrounding of cracking mass and their shapes) were studied.
Results of morphological discretion of cracking mass showed there were some different in shape , width and depth depending on the plasticity , specific and quantitative of clay minerals, depth of ground water , period of growth season and land use.