Volume 6, Issue 2, Autumn 2016, Page 1-213


The Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteria and Yeast of Kluyveromyces marxianus in Growth of Rhizoctonia solani Fungi in Laboratory and Different Temperature and Campestral Deep of Soil

Ebtesam Thamer Jeaz

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-12

This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the yeast K.marxianus and P.aeruginosa bacteria separately against R.solani caused root rot , P.aeruginosa show high efficacy as a biological agent against R.solani on PDA with 100% inhibition at 108 cell/ ml.
In addition , K.marxianus in concentration 10 8 cell/ ml inhibited R.solani growth at 88 % as compared with 0.0% in control , P.aeruginosa suspension at 10 8 cell/ml and its filtrate inhibited spores germination and rate of germ tubes length to 0.0 of R.solany completely .
K.marxianus suspension at 10 8 cell/ml inhibited spores germination with 2.1% , rate of germ tubes length reach to 8 micrometer while K.marxianus filtrate 10 8 cell/ ml inhibition germ germination with 2.2% , rate of germ tubes lenghth reached to 9 micrometer while control (R.solani ) germ germination reach to 97% , germ tubes length with 25 micrometer .
R.solani Produces three enzymes helped of pathogenicity (pectinase, cellulose and protease ) without lipase .These fungus not growth in temperatures 10 c to 27 day , at the temperatures ( 35, 40, 45)c to 14 day and in temperature 50 c to 25 day but R. solani fungus growth in temperature 12 c to 20 day while optimum growth of fungus is in 20 c to 18 day , 25 c to 17 day and 30 c in 16 day . R.solani founded in depth (1,7,10,13) cm but if is not founded in depth 16 cm

The Satisfaction of Cattle Breeders for Extension Services , Veterinary and Supplies Provided to Them and Most Important Problems They Face in Cows Management and Breeding in the Central and Southern Governorates of Iraq

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 13-25

The research aims at identifying the of Satisfaction of cattle breeders for extension services , veterinary and supplies provided to them as well as the most important problems they face in cows management and breeding in the central and southern governorates of Iraq . The research community covered (13) provinces of the central and southern area of Iraq , ( 50% ) of those provinces ( 7 provinces ) are chosen as a sample ( Baghdad , Karbala , Najaf , Wasit , Qudisya , Muthana and Basrah ) , The sample also included (42) of agricultural departments which represented (50%) of the community , ( 0.5% ) of the breeders as a random cluster sample is chosen which were ( 188 ) of the total of ( 36827 ) breeders . To achieve the research objectives questionnaire were designed to collect data , to measure the Satisfaction cattle breeders for the services provided to them consists of three axis (extension services, veterinary services, supplies services) , amounts the items consists these axis (24) items , To measure the problems facing cattle breeders consists of five axes (extension problems, veterinary problems, supplies problems, support issues, and other problems) , amounted the items consisting These axis (24) items , use like scale of five parameters to measure two objectives .The research concluded severe lack of satisfaction with the extension services , veterinary and supplies provided to them and many problems they face in cows management and breeding . The researcher recommends the need to include the services provided on all threads own management and breeding cows , specific objectives , lucid of result from the study of the reality of cattle breeders to provide services on its basis , open milk collecting centers , improving the quality of animal feed provided to them

The Effect of Ionized Water (Alkaline and Acidic) on Body Conformation For Carcasses of Broiler Chicken

Mohammed A.H. Al-janabi; Saad A. H. Naji; Bushra . S . R . Zangana

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 26-33

This experiment is conducted to investigate the effect of ionized water (alkaline and acidic) on body weight , carcasses weight , body length , circumambient of breast , thighs , back, and length of bon for carcasses of 49 day old broiler chicks. A total of 300 one day old chicks Ross308 strain with 38g initial body weight per chick are randomly allocated into three treatment group of 100 chicks each . Each treatment group are sub-divided into four replicates with twenty fife chicks each. Chicks in control group (T1) are drinking tap water( PH=7-1) , whereas chicks in second(T2) and third group(T3) were drinking ionized alkaline(PH=8.5) and acidic water(PH=4.8) respectively.
Results show that chicks in (T2) which drink the alkaline water had higher live body weight and carcass weight but the statistical analysis show that these differences are not significant –Alkaline water seems to improve the body length , circumambient of thigh , flier repletion of body ,the length of thigh , drumstick and sternum bones compared with control treatment (T1) and( T3) which their birds received the tap and acidified water respectively, but also the stastical analysis shows that all these differences were not get the significance (P > In conclusion alkaline and acidified ionized water are not significantly affected the carcasses characteristics and measurement of broiler chicks .

Characterization of α- Amylase Produced from a Local Isolate of Bacillus licheniformis R5

Rana Abdullah Hussein; Mohammed O.Muhyaddin

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 34-48

This research is conducted at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad in 2004. The characterization of the purified enzyme shows that the molecular weight of the enzyme produced from the bacteria is 56.000 Daltons as it was determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S- 200 column and the pH of the enzyme activity is 8.0 but the enzyme is more stable at pH range between 7.0 – 9.0, also the optimum temperature of the enzyme activity was 50°C at the optimum pH stability. The activation energy of the converted substrate (starch) of products was 17.500 cal mole while the activation energy of the denaturized enzyme is 64.000 cal mole.
The Kinetic studies show that the Michaels constant (Km) values of the enzyme using starch, glycogen and amylose as substrates are 0.44 mM, 0.43 mM and 0.28 mM respectively, revealing that the enzyme has a highest affinity to amylose in comparison with starch and glycogen , It was also found that the addition of calcium chloride to the reaction mixture increase the enzyme activity by 138.8% (Conc. of 0.6 mM) , also by measuring the thermo stability of the enzyme in the presence of calcium chloride with a concentration of (0.6 mM and 1.0mM) at (70 – 80)°C , the enzyme has kept its total activity at 70°C and 95.3% of its activity in the presence of 0.6 mM of calcium chloride and 100% in the presence of 1.0 mM at 80°C .

The Correlation Between Active Carbon and Organic Carbon with Some of Soil Properties.

A.A. Al-Gumaily; S. S. Al-Azawi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 49-59

A biological experiment have been carried out in a wood tanta at the Department of soil science and water resources department with CRD design at three replications in 42 experimental units. Pots plastic have been used and placed in 12 kg soil and mix with organic waste( Cow residues , Date Palm residues without adjust C/N , Date Palm residues with adjust C/N) resulting from the decomposition of aerobic and anaerobic on the basis of 1% organic . Seeds of Zea mays. L. a variety of Fajer 1 have been planted on 01.07.2014 and the moisture of soil have been receipted to 0.33 bar. With the addition of mineral fertilizers, according to the recommendations fertilizers are added, nitrogen in the form of urea fertilizer (N% 46) after dissolved with water and an average of three batches the first is at the agriculture and the second after two weeks of agriculture and the third month after the agriculture either phosphorus has been added in the form of super fertilizer phosphate ( P% 20) after mixing it with the soil before planting either potassium it has been added in the form of potassium sulfate (K% 41.5) and on the first two installments before planting by mixing it with the soil and the second month after the agriculture with nitrogen fertilizer third installment recommendation is 80 kg N. h-1.160 kg P. h -1.100 kg K.h -1.All plants serve process as recommended during experiment period till flowering stage (60 day after planting). Samples of soil have been taken to determine some physical (aggregate stability) , chemical(pH . EC and CEC) and fertilizer (OM , active carbon , nitrogen available , phosphorus available , potassium available) properties of soil at the end of experiment period. Results showed a significant correlation between active carbon and available N content in soil with correlation coefficient (r) 0.77 , While it is a significant correlation between organic carbon with available P and K content in soil with correlation coefficient (r) (0.61 and 0.70 respectively).

The Effect of Magnetized Water and Sulfur on the Germination and Seedlings Growth of Cowpea (Vigna sinesis L.) Under Salt Stress Conditions

Muhamed alouan Hashem; Muhamed Radwan Mahmoud; Naser Habeb

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 60-68

Field experiment is conducted in the station Aal Bandar in Muthanna Province in the southern region of Iraq to study the response of cowpea Vigna sinesis L. to some physical and chemical treatments during the spring season in 2015 under salt stress conditions, cowpea (local Alazmira variety) includs an experiment to study three factors : the first factor of three agricultural sulfur levels of 98% sulfur is (0-2-4) t / ha, the second factor is The magnetized water (1500 gauss and control), under the effect of irrigation with salt water (2, 4 ,8 ds/m) in the study of the following characteristics: ratio and speed of germination and the length of radicle and the strength of seedling and dry weight of the seedling , and using R.C.B.D design with 3 replicates. The results of statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the treatments where he found that the increase in the salinity of irrigation water has led to a significant decrease in the percentage of germination and strength of seedling and dry weight of the seedling amounted averages less) and without adding sulfur and irrigation normal water, where the percentage of germination (40.22%) and the strength of seedling can When the treatment (8 ds/m) (965.28) and dry weight of the seedling (9.22 mg) increases the speed of index germination (33.55 Day / seed) for the same treatments and reached the highest when the treatment (2 ds/m) and at the level of sulfur (4 t / ha) and irrigation magnetized water, where the percentage of germination (89%) and the strength of seedling (2280) and dry weight of the seedling (14.83 mg), while the average length of radicle rose high salinity and reached the top when the treatment (8 ds/m) and without adding sulfur and irrigation normal water where it reach (14 cm) and decreased average length of radicle when adding agricultural sulfur and irrigation magnetized water and a lower level of stress saline (2 ds/m), where is (9.76 cm), either triple overlap between the treatments shows significant results are clear in the percentage of germination and radicle length and strength of the cold and dry weight of the seedling while the speed of germination is not affected significantly

The Statistical Analysis of Sunflower Productivity In Iraq of (2004 – 2010 ) Period

Naji Safi Naji

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 69-82

The objective of this research is to achieve the stastistcal analysis of Sunflower productivity kg/ha which is farmed in Iraq for the period (2004-1010) period by using 1. Parametric Test (One Way – ANOVA Test) . 2. Non Parametric Test)Kruskal-Walls Test (.The following two comparison are achieved : 1. A comparion among ten iraqi provinces of (2004-2010) . The result indicated that are significand differences at 0.05 level of significance among some , but others aren’t. The best province is Al-Qadisiya , which had higher productivity average. The provinces are classified into three levels according to their productivities . 2.A comparion through time among seven years in Iraq for the period (2004-1010) . The result indicated that are no significand differences at 0.05 level of significance through the period . this result indicated that is not any Sunflower productivity growth in Iraq .The Sunflower productivity is low when it is compared with the productivity of the wor1d countries. Thus , the important suggestion is to do our best on reach higher productivity level with the wor1d countries for example Egypt , and Switzerland.

The Effect of Treated Waste Water by Binary Irrigation on Growth and Yield of Maize

Hamda A. Irhayyim; Prof. A. H. Alshakhli; Francis U. Jannu

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 83-96

A field experiment is conducted to determine water requirements for mays crop for the fall season of 2013 in the field of Zafaraniyah Station – Ministry of Agriculture, 30 km south of Baghdad, 44.4˚ longitude, 33.14 latitude and 34 m elevation. The experiment is designed according to RCBD with three replicates and treatments are distributed randomly on experimental plots. The field is divided into experimental units. The experiment consisted five irrigation treatments: T1 (100 wastewater), T2 (75% wastewater +25% river water), T3 (50% waste water + 50% river water), T4 (25% wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 (100% river water).
There is a significant increment in plant growth and yield, where plant height, leaf area, weight of 1000 grains, grains yield and grains yield per individual plant increased with increasing mixture ratio, the higher height is in T1 (100% wastewater) of 1.86 m and the lower height is 1.74 m in T5 (100% river water) with increment ratio of 2.29, 4.02, 6.32 and 6.89% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Higher leaf area was 0.58 m2 at T1 and the lower is 0.51 m2 at T5 with increment ratio of 3.77, 5.14, 12.58 and 13.30 for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively. Grain weight increase with increasing mixture ratio, the higher weight is 265.3 g at T1 and the lower is 235.3 g at T5 with increment ratio of 3.82, 6.12, 10.07 and 12.75% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The higher yield is 9.64 tons.h-1 at T1 and the lower is 7.63 tons.h-1 at T5 with increment ratio of 3.80, 9.44, 12.71 and 26.74% for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively. Grain yield per individual plant increase with the increasing mixture ratio, where the higher yield was 145.19 g at T1 and the lower was 114.56 g at T5 with increment ratio of 3.81, 9.44, 12.72 and 26.74% for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively.
Results of the effect of treated wastewater on plant height and leaf area agree with those obtained for green canopy cover percent (CC) through applying AquaCrop program, where the higher CC was 81% at T1 and the lower CC is 77% at T4 (25% treated wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 at planting period.

The Effect of Using Some Aromatic Medical Herbs in Broiler Diet on Biochemical Characteristics of Blood, Immune Organs and Bacteria Count in Broiler Carcasses

Firas R. Jameel; Saad A. A. Nagi; Firas M. Hussein; Sami. H. Farhan

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 97-107

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with coriander seed and rosemary leaves or a mixture for them on biochemical characteristics of blood, immune organs and bacteria count in meat of broiler carcass (colony forming unit/g). A total of 1080 broiler chicks , Ross-308 at one day old, were randomly allocated for nine treatment groups . Chicks in each treatment group were subdivided for three replicates with 40 chicks for each replicate. Chicks in the first and second treatment are fed on diet supplemented with coriander seed (0.25 % and 0.50 % ) , respectively . While, chicks in the third and fourth treatment are fed diet with rosemary leaves (0.25 % and 0.50 %) , respectively . Also, Mixed of the two medical herbs are added to fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth treatment .Whereas, chicks in the ninth treatment are fed diet without medical herbs supplementation and used as a control group. At marketing age (42d) 12 blood samples are taken to measure the total protein and glucose in serum. Also 9 birds from each treatment group are culled to determine Bursa and spleen weight. Also, the relative weight of Spleen and Bursa Index are calculated. Total bacteria count (colony forming unit(cfu)/ g )and coliform and Salmonella in each one gram of mixed meat from each treatment are recorded.
Data show that dietary treatment doesn't significantly affect the serum protein contain, relative weight of bursa and bursa index. However the dietary treatment is significantly ( p < 0.05) increases the serum glucose and spleen relative weight . Total bacteria count, coliform and salmonella count are not affected by dietary treatment.
In conclusion, diet supplementation with Rosemary or coriander seed has an effect on biochemical characteristics of blood, immune organs and bacterial count.

Purification of α- Amylase Produced from of Bacillus Licheniformis R5

Rana Abdullah Hussein; Mohammed O.Muhyaddin

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 108-116

This research is conducted at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad in 2004 where the α – amylase enzyme, which is produced by Bacillus licheniformis R5 under optimum conditions, is purified by several steps which includ adsorption to Starch and precipitation by Ammonium Sulphate at 40 – 80% saturation, where the effectiveness of the enzyme, also the quality and effectiveness is 14 016 units / ml and 114 885 units / mg , respectively. The number of purification times that could be achieved is 11.8 times and developed to 45.2%.
Gel filtration using the Sephacryl S- 200 column was used for purification. The purification folds and the yield of the enzyme at the end of these steps are 40.39 times and 35.20% respectively. The products obtained at various stages of the Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme performed by Thin – Layer Chromatography, showed that at the early steps of the reaction (after 20 min) only with the Oligosaccharides are appear while Glucose and Maltose, as the major products of the hydrolysis, are detectable after 30 min of the reaction time.

The Effect of Plants Arrangement in the Field on Growth and Yield of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Haitham A. Ali; Sarah A. Al-Katranny

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 117-126

A field experiment is conducted during the Winter season 2014-2015 in one of the agricultural fields in Sarraji area south of Basra Province, just 2 km from the center of the province (soil Texture loamy clay), The goal of the study is to determine the best combination of the distribution of plants between Rows and hills and to get the best seed yield. The Carried out the experiment design is (R.C.B.D) with four replication with two factors : the first factor four distances between the Rows (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm) and the second factor is three spaces between the hills(10, 15 and 20 cm), the factorial experiment is used with 48 experimental units.
Results show the different distance between the Rows of cultivation among themselves morally in most of the traits excelled as distance 30 cm between the Rows at all the distances used to achieve the highest seed yield amounted to 3463.94 kg/h as this distance has worked to increase the plant significantly which is increased since giving rise the highest rate of highest plants 122.50 cm and also excels in the 100-seed weight at a rate 140.20g. while surpassing the distance of 60 cm in leaf area is at a rate of 0.29 m2 and the highest rate of number pods at plant reach 15.48 pod/ plant and the number of seeds/ pod average of 4.37 seeds/ pod. As the results show that differing distances of cultivation between hills among them as surpassed the distance of 10 cm seed yield 3817.85 kg/ h in 93.73 plant height cm and outperformed the distance of 20 cm in the number of pods/ plant 13.43 pod/ plant and the number of seeds/ pod 3.80 seed/ pod in 0.22 m2 leaf area, while surpassing the distance of 15 cm in 100-seed weight is 98.02 g. The results show that there is a significance between the Rows and the hills which are significant in most of the traits and the effect of the interaction is similar to the effect of the main factors as an excelled combination 30*10 in the sum total of seeds yield to 4067.22 kg/ h as well as excelled in plant height is 131.45 cm and also surpassing 100 seed weight 156.64 g, while the combination 60*20 is excelled in a number pods rate of 18.8 pod/ plant and the number of seeds/ pod at a rate of 5.18 seed/ pod and leaf area of the plant 0.35 m2 .

The Aerobic and Anaerobic Decomposition for Different Sources of Organic Material Content

A.A. Al-Gumaily; S. S. Al-Azawi

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 127-135

A incubation experiment is carried out in a wood tent under aerobic and anaerobic with CRD design at 3 replicates in 24 experimental units. The experiment treatments include ( Cow residue , date palm residues without adjusted C/N , date palm residues with adjusted C/N to 1/19 and soil is used as control treatment , The organic components are characterize and measured of the content organic weekly during incubation period for 4 months. The results showed that The aerobic decomposition is faster than anaerobic decomposition , The organic residues of organic matter are reduced under anaerobic condition from 54.59 gm.Kg-1 after 7 days to reach a value of 48.68 gm.Kg-1 after 54 day of incubation period, while under aerobic conditions it is 52.33 gm.Kg-1 to reach a value of 43.81 gm.Kg-1 after 54 day of incubation period and show there are differences significant at 21 , 28 , 35 , 42 , 48 and 54 days respectively, Also The adjusted and non-adjusted date palm residues showed a significant difference superiority in the organic content. matter in all periods

Effect of Time and the Level of Agricultural Sulfur Application on the Uptake of (P, Fe, Zn) in Plant on Growth and Yield of Two Genotypes of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Firas W. Ahmed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 136-150

A field experiment is carried out in one of the farmers' fields in the north-east of Ramadi District area in Anbar Province during growth season 2012 -2013 in a Silty Loam texture soil, to study the effect of time and the level of agricultural sulfur application on the uptake of ( phosphorus, iron, Zinc ) in plant and the growth of two genotypes of maize plant Zea mays L. (genotypes 5012 and genotypes 106). The agricultural sulfur produced locally in Mishraq fields (95% S) in two levels ( 0 , 2500 ) Kg.ha-1 on fure time ( applied when agriculture, applied a month later of planting, applied two months later of planting, applied three months of planting) , nitrogen is at a rate of 320 kg.ha-1 using urea (46% N) phosphorus is added at a rate of 100 kg P.ha-1 using the fertilizer DAP (21% P) and potassium is added at a rate of 180 kg K.ha-1 using potassium sulfate (41.5 % K) , according to a global experience within the randomized complete block design (RCBD) and three replicates.
The results show a significant increase in genotypes 106 other than genotypes 5012 in the uptake of (phosphorus, iron and zinc)and in the plant and (dry weight of shoots, the number of grains per head and yield) when agricultural sulfur is applied to the soil, and treatment of agricultural sulfur two months later of planting (T3) also give a significant increase in indicators as compared to treatment (T1), which give the lowest values, the treatment of agricultural sulfur application is higher than control where it gave the highest average of grain yield to 6.15 T.ha-1,in an increase of 23.74% compared with the control treatment, application of agricultural sulfur gave a significant effect on grain yield as T3 treatment achieved a higher yield of 6.63 T.ha-1 in an increase of 17.13% as compared with treatment T1, which give less yield of grain of 5.66 T.ha-1.

Efficiency of Filters in Decreasing Salinity of Wells Water and Boron Toxicity and Increasing of Tomato Production (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Yields

Hanan A. Saeed; Hayfaa J. Hussein; Nejela J. Mohamed

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 151-164

Water samples are collected from fifteen wells in Zubair, Berjesia and Safwan regions/ Basrah Province / Iraq during season 2014. Water samples properties are determined and classified to three categories for salinity (1-4 , 4-8 , and 8-12 dSm-1) and three categories for boron toxicity (< 0.7 , 0.4-3.0, and > 3.0) mg L-1. Water samples water treated with nine mineral and organic filters (Sand filter, charcoal, cement klint dust, porcelain, ash rice husks, barley straw, sawdust, date palm fiber, and poultry manure). Removal efficiency of salinity and boron toxicity is calculated after passing wells water samples throw filters. Results indicated there are differences among filters in decreasing water salinity as following rice hush ash> cement klint dust> barley> straw> poultry manure> sawdust> coal> porcelain> palm fiber> sand for water salinity and boron toxicity of Berjesia , Safwan and Zubair respectively rice husk ash> cement klint dust> coal> porcelain> sawdust> barley> poultry manure> palm fiber> sand and rice husk ash> cement klint dust> coal> porcelain> barley> sawdust = poultry manure> palm fiber> sand for wells in Zubair. After water treatment with filter is used for tomato irrigation planted in field soil of Agricultural Research station / Berjesia. After 176 days of tomato planted, yield was calculated for tomato fruits. Results indicate that there are significant differences among filters in total yield of tomato. Rice husk ash gave highest yield with significant difference. Yield of tomato for rice husk ash, cement klint dust, sand filter and control treatment in Zubair and Berjesia is (989.53, 874.84, 486.02, 375.23) and (870.32, 729.84, 434.07, 176.59) gm pot-1 respectively, and in safwan region was (842.68, 679.86, 358.56, 0.0) gm pot-1 respectively. Filters efficiency in increasing tomato yield was as follows : rice husk ash > cement klint dust > sand filter.

The Effect of Fertilizers in Amidohydrolases enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Rhizoshper

Luma .S.J. Al-Taweel

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 165-173

To study the enzymes activity for (Amidase , Urease , L-Asparaginase , L-Glutaminase and L-Aspartase) in sunflower plant rhizosphere in two different textures and the effect of the fertilizers kinds (mineral fertilizer , organic fertilizer and biofertilizer) in enzymes activity , two sites were chosen , the first was clayey silt texture and the second was sandy loam texture were fertilized in one level for every kind of fertilizers . The mineral fertilizer (160N kg.h-1 were added in two times before the cultivated and the second before flowering and 80 kg. P2O5 kg.h-1 were added before cultivated and 80kg K2O kg h-1 were added before cultivated). Organic fertilizer (poultry manure) was added as one level 10 Ton.h-1 and the bio fertilizer (Mikro-kondi) were added spraying 5 letter.h-1 in two times when start of vegetation about (6-8) leaves and the second spray before flowering about 4 weeks after the first treatment .
The results were summarized as :
• Increasing of enzyme activity for all enzymes in rhizosphere than the bulk soil.
• The enzymes activity in clayey silt texture were increased than the enzymes activity in sandy loam texture in all fertilized treatments.
• The organic fertilizer has high values than the author fertilizer kinds in enzymes activities and it arranged as follow :
Organic fertilizer  biofertilizer  mineral fertilizer  control
The highest enzymes activities values were in Amidase and the lowest were in L-Asperginase and it arranged as follow :
Amidase  L-Aspartase  Urease  L-Glutaminase  L-Asparaginase

Chemical , physical and Biological Properties for Cracking Mass of Soils from Middle of Iraq

Raid. Sh . Jarallah; S.K.Essa

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 174-186

In order to investigate clayey cracks and their properties. Seven soils sites (Afak Vertic-Torrifluvent , Al-Diwaniyah Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Taleea Typic-Torrifluvent , Babel Vertic-Torrifluvent , Agriculture college Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Wahda Vertic-Torrifluvent and Al-Raid project Typic-Torrifluvent) were chosen for this study. The results show that EC , pH , sodium ions , organic matter , clay content , bulk density , free iron oxides (total and crystalline) , SAR and ESP were increased while CEC , moisture content , silt content , were decreased for hard part compared with friable part in all soils. The distribution of total and active carbonates were differ into two parts (hard and friable) depending on soils properties. The numbers of bacteria and fungi were decreased in hard part comparing with friable part in all soils.

Mineralogical Analysis for Cracking Mass of Soils From Middle of Iraq

Raid. Sh . Jarallah; S.K.Essa

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 187-200

Seven soils sites (Afak Vertic-Torrifluvent , Al-Diwaniyah Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Taleea Typic-Torrifluvent , Babel Vertic-Torrifluvent , College of Agriculture Typic-Torrifluvent , Al-Wahda Vertic-Torrifluvent and Al-Raid project Typic-Torrifluvent) were chosen to study some mineralogical properties of hard and friable parts of cracking mass the results showed :
- The x-ray diffractions showed in the clay minerals were arrangement as :
Smectite  Illite  chlorite  kaolinite
In all soils except (Afak and Al-Diwaniyah) soils were an arranged as follows :
Smectitice  Chlorite  Illite  Kaolinite .
- The x-ray diffractions found the chlorite mineral in all soils was swelling chlorite and that leads to increase of soil plasticity and an increased of swelling and shrinkage of soils by drying and wetting processes.
- The ratio of SM / Ch , SM/ IL , SM / R2O3 were decreased in the mineral composition in hard parts of cracking mass in all soils because of they differ in the mineral percent in clay fraction (fine and coarse).
- The hardness of hard parts of cracking mass is because of the increasing of Illite mineral in their content .
- The total and crystalline free iron oxides were increased in hard parts of cracking mass in all soils studied.

Effect of Treated Wastewater by Binary Irrigation on Soil Physical Properties

Hamda A. Irhayyim; Prof. A. H. Alshakhli; Francis U. Jannu

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 201-213

A field experiment was conducted to determine water requirements for mays crop for fall season of 2013 in the field of Zafaraniyah Station – Ministry of Agriculture, 30 km south of Baghdad, 44.4˚ longitude, 33.14 latitude and 34 m elevation.
The experiment was designed according to RCBD with three replicates and treatments were distributed randomly on experimental plots. The field was divided into experimental units and the statistical program Genstat (2012) was used for statistical data analysis under probability level of 0.05 to compare treatments means. The experiment consisted five irrigation treatments: T1 (100 wastewater), T2 (75% wastewater +25% river water), T3 (50% waste water + 50% river water), T4 (25% wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 (100% river water). Irrigation with treated wastewater and binary irrigation had significant effects on soil bulk density at probability level 0.05 for three depths, soil bulk density decreased with increasing of irrigation with treated wastewater rate, and it decreased with increasing of river water irrigation rate and higher increment was in T5 (100% river water only). Irrigation with treated wastewater and dual irrigation had non-significant effects on soil bulk density below probability level 0.05 for three depths, whereas soil bulk density decreased with increase of irrigation rate with treated wastewater, and it decrease with increase of river water irrigation rate and most increase in fifth treatment (100% river water only). Total porosity increased with increasing of mixing rate with treated wastewater and binary irrigation in 1.90, 2.70, 6.44 and 9.07% for 0-15 cm soil depth, and 1.86, 2.73, 5.88 and 6.12 for 15-30 cm soil depth, and0.79, 1.10, 4.22, and 3.44% for 30-60 cm soil depth for 25, 50, 75, and 100% mixing rate for irrigation with treated wastewater. Rate of soil aggregation more than 20 µ for soil sample that taken from 30-15 cm soil depth for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were 33.76, 28.24, 26.40, 27.44, and 24.16% respectively. Increased mixing rate with treated wastewater and river water and binary irrigation increased mean weighted diameter (MWD) for two depths 0-15 and 15-30 cm, were 3.23, 2.01, and 1.74 and 1.40 times for treatment T2 and T3 and T4 and T5 respectively, while increase for second depth (15-30 cm) were 1.62 and 1.33 and 1.25 and 1.07 times respectively, compared with T1 treatment. Infiltration rate decreased with increasing mixing rate with treated wastewater were 10.03, 22.58, 29.26 and 43.48% for treatments T3 and T4 and T2 and T1 compared with T5 treatment, respectively.