Volume 7, Issue 2, Autumn 2017, Page 1-231


Salinity and Compost Amendment Impact on Amidase Activity in Rhizoshere of Tomato and Bean plants.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

The aim of this study was to disclosed the activity of extracellular enzyme (amidase) in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plots experiment was performed in Agriculture college / Al-Qadissiyah University for the spring season 2013 ,the sandy loam soil was used and cultivate Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salinity , 6 , 8 and 10) dS.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 and 20)T.h-1 , and their interactions completely randomized design (CRD) was used with six replicates, and the means of treatments were compared by L.S.D test 5% level .
The results were summarized as :
1- The enzyme activity were increased with increasing of the adding compost level 20Ton.h-1 and its interactions with salinity levels .
2- The enzymes activity were varied in rhizosphere development directions and the plants were differed in the site of highest activity , the enzyme activity in horizontal rhizosphere development direction was higher than the vertical direction .
3- The enzyme activity in tomato rhizosphere was higher than bean rhizosphere in all rhizosphere vertical and horizontal directions .
4- The high inhibitor percent of enzyme activity was at the level of 10 dS.m-1 salinity and the lowest was at the 6 dS.m-1. The inhibition percent were increased in vertical direction of rhizosphere developing (5-10)cm in tomato plant. The adding compost levels were varied by increasing or decreasing of enzyme activity according to rhizosphere development and it sites . .

The Effect of Inoculation by Thiobacillus Thiooxidans on Phosphorus Availablity in Soil

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 14-22

The aim of this laboratory experiment which includes isolating of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (genus Thiobacillus) from Rhizosphere of some plants and soil treated with sulfur and contaminated with oil and choose the best isolates in reducing the degree of pH and production of sulfate .The isolate T2 is excellent on the rest of the isolates in reducing the degree of pH (8) to (5.51 , 6.07) and produced sulfate 29.1and 114.90 mg.L -1in sulfur and thiosulfate Liquid media as compared with other isolate and used as inoculum in pots experiment .The pots are filled with 4 Kg soil of Qurna Fertilizaed with nitrogen fertilizer and potassium fertilizer as recommended maize and added the sulfur levels (0,2,4,6) tan S. Ha-1 soil and rock phosphate levels (0,400,800,1600) Kg rock.Ha-1 .The pots have been divided into two parts: one of them is inoculation with 15 ml of T2 isolate and the other is left without inoculated and incubated pots laboratory for a month and moisteur tap water to complete the process of sulfer oxidation. After the end of the incubation the pots trancfered to the wired of the college of Agriculture, University of Al-Basra and planted with seeds of maize by (6) seed .pot-1 and placed according to the design (RCBD) with three replications . After germination with 60 days took samples from the soil 14 ,42and exet the experiment and measurement of avilable phosphorus. The results showed that the treatment of best isolated T2, 6 tan.ha-1 1600 Kg rock.ha-1 as gived the highest concentration of available phosphorus in the soil 90.60 ,48.43 and 44.75 mg P. kg-1. soil during the two- six-week periods and after harvest as compared to the treatment without inoculation and non treatment with sulfur and rock phosphate, which has given the available P 15.68 , 12.89 and 8.88 mg P. kg-1 soil during the same periods respectivelly..

Al-kut Dam Sediments Content of Some Heavy Metals and Its Relationship with Pollution

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 23-36

This study has been carried out in Alkut city the center of Wasit province which is located about 180 km south of the capital Baghdad on one from the most important dams constructed on the river Tigris called Alkut Dam . Four pedons have been selected in this study, two pedons (A,B) are located in the lower part of dam and the other two pedons (C ,D) are located in the upper part of dam , sediments samples analysis for particle size distribution and total & available heavy metals concentration (Ni ، Cd ، Zn ، Pb ،Fe ) in the water and sediments.
Results show that the total concentration of nickel ranges between(104.2 - 178.4) mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the second depth (156-126)cm for pedon A and the lower value has been found in the second depth (50-30) for pedon D , while total cadmium concentration ranges between (6.1-2.2)mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the second depth (35-20) for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the sixth depth (73-93cm)for the same pedon , the values for total Zinc concentration ranges between (108-69) mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the fifth depth (73-55)cm for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the last depth (120-100cm) for pedon D in the upper part of dam, the results of total lead concentration ranges between (24.2-11.35) mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the first depth (0-20cm)cm for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the third depth (60-50cm) for pedon D in the upper part of dam , while the total concentration for iron (Fe) which ranges between (4595-2988) mg.kg-1 the higher value has been found in the second depth (20-50cm) for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the seventh depth (111-93cm) for the same pedon . As compared with critical limits , results show that total concentration of heavy metals for Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in Sediments samples all has exceed the critical limits values except in some depths.
The results for the available heavy metal concentrations show that the available nickel concentration ranges between(33.2-107.4)mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the second depth (20-35)cm for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the second depth (30-50) for pedon D in the upper part of dam , while total cadmium concentration ranges between (0.21-0.48)mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the first depth (0-20)cm for pedon B at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the sixth depth (73-93cm)for the pedon A at the lower part of dam , the values for the available Zinc concentration ranges between (56-111) mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the tenth depth (191-231)cm for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the last depth (120-100cm) for pedon D in the upper part of dam, the results of available lead (pb) concentration ranges between (6.7-20.2) mg.kg-1 and the higher value has been found in the first depth (0-20cm)cm for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the third depth (60-50cm) for pedon D in the upper part of dam , while the available concentration for iron (Fe) which ranges between (39-74)mg.kg-1 the higher value has been found in the second depth (20-50cm) for pedon A at the lower part of dam and the lower value has been found in the eighth depth(111-126) for the same pedon ,at the comparison of results for the available concentrations of the studied heavy metals it can be seen that all values have exceeded the critical limits values according to Nunes et al 2014. in the other hand the results show that there is significant correlation between the total and available concentration for same heavy metals pairs of the correlation (r2) between the available and total concentration was 0.90 , 0.74 , 0.99, 0.99 and 0.58 for Ni , Cd , Zn , Pb and Fe respectively , in the other hand, the results show that the water concentration for heavy metals are 1.7 , 0.03 ,15 , 0.07 and 27 mg.l-1 for Ni , Cd , Zn , Pb and Fe respectively , which indicate that all values have exceeded the critical limits according to Iraqi standards and FAW. WHO (2003).

The Effect of Manure Source and Level of Mineral Fertilizer in Some Qualitative Properties of the Total Sum of the Potato (Solanum tuberosumL.)

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 37-45

To find out the effect of the manure (plant residues) in the growth and yield of potatoes in calcareous soil conducted filed experiment has been in a field located in physical education areas–Baghdad University- Jadiriyah campus in fall season in 2015-2016 in a LoamySand soil, the study included two factors the first factor includes four sources of manure O0(without adding) O1(paulty) O2(wheat straw) O3(palm fronds) with volume is 30 Tan h-1 and the second factor includes the application of three levels of the chemical fertilizer M0(without application) M1(120 kg N +60 kg P+200 kg K) M2(240 kg N+120 kg P+400 kg K) layed out in a (RCBD) with three replication, manures and the phosphate fertilizer are added before two weeks of planting. The seeds of potatoes class are plantal (Desiree) in 22 September 2016, by adding the nitrogen and the potassium fertilizer in three equal times in 21,45,70 days after planting. At the maturity stage are measurements of plant height, number of main stems and the maturity stage reaped of the vegetative parts and calculated the dry weight of the shoot on 22January 2016 tubers are taken off and measure the total yield of tubers. The results show a superiority of the treatment of poultry of out was performed other than the treatments of wheat straw and palm fronds as indicators of plant height 68.00cm, the number of main stems 3.63 stem plant-1and the dry weight of shoot 7.04 Ton h-1and the total yield of tubers is 49.94 Ton h- Wheat straw treatment has given lower values in the studied indicators measuring treatment of poultry and palm fronds its gave plant heights of 57.40 cm and a number of main stems 2.50 stem plant-1,the dry weight of shoot 5.70 Ton h-1 and the total yield of tubers is 40.92 Ton h-1The treatment of the mineral fertilizer M2 which has the superiority in studied indicators Measuring this paperwork M0 and M1 given plant height 69.37 cm and the number of main stems 3.80 stem plant-1and the dry weight of shoot7.04 Ton h-1 and the total yield of tubers is 50.09 Ton h-1.Intergration of organic fertilizer and mineral fertilizer application M2O1has given plant height 75.40 cm and the number of main stems 4.60 stem plant-1and the dry weight of shoot7.32Ton h-1 and 57.22 Ton h-1 the total yield of tubers..

The Effect of Different Concentrations of Potassium and Copper Foliar Application on Grown and Yield of Potato.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 46-58

This study has been conducted at the city of Diwaniah located 180 km south of Baghdad to examine the effect of potassium and copper floral application on the growth and yield of potato plants (var.Burren) during the 2015 spring season. Factorial experiment has been carried out in Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and Nine treatments have been used which have three potassium concentrations at 0, 3000, and 6000 mg KL-1 designated respectively and three copper concentrations at 0, 2.5, and 5 mg CuL-1 designated respectively in addition to their interactions. The treatments are applied at three different timeframes which are 45 days after sowing, 15 days after the first spraying, and 15 days after the second spraying. Vegetative growth have been collected at the maturation stage then dried to obtain dry weight and N, P, K, and Cu have been estimated in plant leaves. Tubers are harvested to measure number and yield/plant, tubers average weight, total marketing yield and yield. The obtained data are statistically analyzed and averages are compared according to the least significant differences (LSD) at 5% level of significance and the results were as follows:
The yield components which include tubers number as compared with the control treatment.
Copper foliar application significantly increase vegetative traits of the yield. The K2 treatment has given the highest significant increase of main stem vegetative growth of the components which include tubers number as compared with the control treatment.
The interaction treatments have given a significant result in terms of the both the vegetative and yield traits where K2* Cu2 give the most significant increase in term of vegetative growth while K2* Cu1 significantly increase the plant height and K1* Cu2 significantly affect the number of leaves. As for the yield component, K2*Cu2 show to have the most significant result in all traits under investigation.
Finally, in terms of affecting leaf content of N, P, K, both treatments and their interactions especially K2*Cu2 have a significant impact as compared with the control treatment where the highest the concentration is the highest the impact will be..

The Effect of Spraying Fertilizer NPK in the Growth Properties and Yield in Three Varieties of Peas Pisium sativum L

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 59-66

The experiment has been conducted at of Al Bandar's station affiliated to all University of Al-Muthanna / college of agriculture during the season of 2015-2016 to study the effect of spraying NPK foliar in the growth and yields of three varieties of split peas (Pisium sativum L). Experiment has been designed at a split plot design within a randomized complete sectors (R.C.B.D.) with three replications. Have been distributed three varieties Bonn Basque , Salkopou and Voksbonne in the main panels with three concentrations of spraying Foliar NPK (27-27-27) on the shoots (0, 5. 10 ml/ltr -1 ) in the secondary panels, the results show that the dry weight of vegetation differed significantly between the varieties under study where Bonn Basque recorded a highest weight of shoot which is 21.85 g while the product has been scored Voksbonne less weight, reaching 6.09 g, while the plants sprayed with the solution process recorded NPK which contributed to weight gain Dry where by concentrate 10 ml / l higher weight record which is 15.36 g as compared with non-sprayed plants .It is no ted that the search results of leaves , content of chlorophyll may log vegetative weight in the category Salkopou which is amounted to 34.86, while the class recorded Voksbonne less weight 32.23 g while the results of the spray using the solution NPK with a demonstrated focus of 10 ml / l higher content of chlorophyll recipe number Alqrnat in plant and Albdhur.aly Qurna weight have shown results of the experiment cultivar has surpassed Bonn Basque the highest number Qrnat while the class has recorded Voksbonne less weight while spraying the solution NPK increase of the number of Alqrnat as well as the seeds of the horn weight where the excelled focus 10 ml / liter on the rest of the concentrations used .
0.7 tons / ha superior results also show the superiority of class BonneBusk recipe for winning the overall, scoring the highest quotient amounted to 0.69 tons / ha Panama show spraying brine concentrate NPK 10 ml / l holds on the rest of concentration.

The Effect of Mineral, Organic and Biofertilizeres on the Growth of Zea mays L.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 67-77

An Implemented pot experiment has been conducted in Al-Qadisiyah city - sadder AL- Yusufiya - District 9 in Spring planting season 2016 to study the effect of the overlap between the mineral , organic and bio fertilization in some growth indicators to maize crop (Zea mays) in Silt Loam texture soils with factorial experiement according to completely randomize design (Complete random design) and with three replicates. The expenneit has been done by adding mineral fertilizers (240 kg N. ha-1 and 80 kg P. ha-1 and 120 kg K. ha-1) three levels (0, 50% and 100%) respectively; and two levels of organic fertilizer (0 and 10 Mg. ha-1) respectively; and two levels of bio-fertilizer (0 and 2 ml. L-1) respectively to the irrigation water.
The addition of mineral , organic and bio fertilizers has a significant effecct on the dry matter amount and the treatment (M2O1B1) is given the highest average of the dry matter,which reaches to 57.27 g.pot-1 as compared with the control treatment (M0O0B0), reacches to 20.46 g.pot-1 and the increasing percentage reach to 179.91%. There are no significant differences between (M1O1B1) and (M2O1B1).
The triple overlap among the metal and organic fertilizers and bio has a significant effect on increasing the percentages of N, P and K in maize plants%, the treatment (M2O1B1) has achieved the highest average of 3.67% N and 0.49% P and 2.19% K respectively, compared with the treatment control (M0O0B0) 2.21% N and 0.23% P and 1.33% K sequentially with increasing which presentage reached to 66.06 N% and 113.04 P% and 64.66 K%. There are no significant differences between the treatments (M1O1B1) and (M2O1B1). (M2O1B1).

The Effect of Seed Amounts and Nitrogen Fertilization in the growth and Yield the green fodder for a mixture of forage green forage of a Forage Mixture to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Oats (Avena sativa L.)

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 78-95

A field experiment has been conducted at the agricultural second research station affiliated to College of Agriculture / University of Al-Muthnna , located on Euphrates River in the Al-Bandar village southwestern province of Al-Muthana (800 m away from the city of Samawa/ Al-Muthana Province) during the winter season of 2015 to 2016 in order to study the effect of different amounts of seed oats Avena sativa L. (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160) kg. h-1 with a one amount of seed for Medicago sativa L. (40 kg. h-1)] and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 40, 80 and 120) kg.h-1) on the growth traits and some vegetative traits (high plant and leaf area and weight of leaves and number of branches) and yield green forage for a mixture of forage alfalfa and oats, and three cutting. Applied experience manner split plot, according to randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications.
The results showed moral superiority the third for cutting recorded by using the seed mixture for (40 alfalfa :160 oats) kg. h-1 higher averages of plant height (55.22 cm) and the number of tillers (1058.65 tiller. m-2) and leaf area (98.37 cm) for oats compared to that obtained jet at the highest qualitative weight (509.74 g. cm-2) as recorded at the amount of alfalfa seed (40 kg. AH -1) the highest in the third cutting plant height (56.36 cm) and leaf area (207.50 cm 2. plant -1) and the number of branches (1477.84 branch. m -2) While recorded the amount of seed (40 Alfalfa: 80 Oats) kg. H-1 holds the highest green fodder when the third cutting has average of (58.21 tons). H-1 As for the effect of nitrogen fertilization level have won 80 kg. E -1 highest averages for all vegetative traits studied and yield green fooder to plant oats and alfalfa in the third cutting as well as the attainment of the highest averages in the leaf area of Chauvin specific weight of leaf alfalfa forage in the mixture when nitrogen fertilization is not added (control treatment) .).

The Contribution of the Flag Leaf and the Lower Parts of the Leaves and Inflorescence in the Production of Dry Matter and Composition Holds the Grain for Three Genotypes of Oats.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 96-109

Tow field experiments have been conducted, during winter season (2015 – 2016) at the agricultural experiments and researsh station (3 km sothern west Al-samawa) of the college of Agriculture – University of Al-Muthanna, Where it was ten inflorescences conduct transaction in the expulsion of 50% for each expermental unit stag and when reach this stage of transactions conducted a comparsion and removing flag leaf awn and remove the lower leaves and shading of inflorescence, to study the contribution of flag leaf, other leaves, parts of spike and tips in production of dry matter and composition of grain yield for wheat and oat crop. The experiment has been carried out by using the Split plot with R.C.B. desgin to three replications.
Results show the control treatment gave high mean grain yield (5.402 g plant), biological yield (12.473 g plant) and harvest index (49.560 %). Removing of flag leaf, tip and other leaves treatments have led to lower of no. of grains per spike, weight of grain, grain yield, biological yield and percentage of protein. Shadowing of spike treatment has gaven decreasing in yield components and increasing to percentage of protein. Percentage of the contribution of flag leaf, other leaves, tips and spike (13.587 , 25.064 , 23.837 and 34.17) % respectively.
Carrolup cv. Has gaven high means grian per spike , weight of grain , grain yield (4.805g plant), biological yield (9.138 g plant) and hervset index (54.535%).Wallaro cv has gaven high percentage of protein (12.02%).
The interaction (control treatment X Wallaro cv.) has gaven high grain yield (5.790 g plant) .The interaction (control treatment X Carrolup cv.) has gaven high biological yield (12.596g plant). The interaction (removing of spike treatment X Wallaro cv.) has gaven high percentage of protein (13.26%). (13.26 %).

The Estimation of the Degree of Genetic Divergence Using Cluster Analysis of the Varieties of Wheat

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 110-117

A field experiment has been carried out at eight different environmental sites in the province of Diwaniya for seasonal years in 2014 and 2015 to test nine varieties of different origin wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and assembled in homogeneous groups and assess the degree of divergence between them and estimate distances Euclidean using cluster analysis.
The grain yield data analysis using hierarchical consolidation method (hierarchical) after it has been estimating the degree of similarity by creating a matrix of proximities.
The result of the cluster analysis to combine items in five groups formed during the ten stages is every group consists of two varieties except the fifth group consists of one variety.
The results of cluster analysis shows that cultivars sabah and Iba 99 have the most similarity the highest distance Euclidean This refers to the similarity of genes that control the yield grains, which indicate that the degree of divergence of genetic height and reflects the positive to perform tow variety and they possess some of the major favorite genes and crosses to take advantage of them in education programs, while Iba has got less Euclidean distance Maxibak of the variety, which shows a genetic dimension of this product may be due to the different genetic origins.
Varieties are distributed to two main groups: the first group (A) includes variety (4 and 5) while the second group (B) the rest of the totals and characterized by the average of the sum which is higher including than the first group when is an indication of the existence of favorites genes segregated for a recipe made in the categories for the second group which can benefit from segregation. divergent varieties genetically engineered can be used to improve the local varieties by transferring genes winning one of the superior ways of education breeding because the spacing will ensure that genetic similarity between genes tested varieties. .

The Study of Corn Cobs and Gypsum Adding In Some Physical Characters and Organic Matter of Cracking Soils from Middle of Iraq.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 118-127

In order to investigate the role corn cobs and gypsum in some physical characters and organic matter of clayey cracks and their properties. Seven soils sites (Afak, Al-Diwaniyah, Al-Taleea, Babel, Agriculture college, Al-Wahda and Al-Raid project)
There are three types of treatments as follows:
- Corn cobs was applied in four levels (0 . 10 . 20 and 40) g.kg-1
- Gypsum (calcium sulfate) applied in four levels (0 , 5 , 7.5 and 10) g.kg-1.
- Treatments of interaction between corn cobs and gypsum.
Corn cobs , gypsum and their interaction were applied in same levels above.
In this experiment , 2 kg of each studied soil were treated with same levels of corn cobs and gypsum above and incubated at 30 + 2 °C for 90 days and 80% relative moisture content at 33 kpa. The results were summarized as :
Soil aggregate stability (MWD) and organic matter values were increased , while modules of rupture and (COLE) values were decreased , with increasing of gypsum and corn cobs applying. Also, results showed that the decreasing of (COLE) values were depending on the clay content and interaction treatments , between corn cobs and gypsum. The decreasing of (COLE) values were the highest in the clayey cracks disappeared treatments.
ً.

A Study of Some Physical Properties of Two Different Soil Textures Planted with Conocarpus Trees (Conocarpus lancifolius. Engl)

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 128-141

This research has been conducted to study the effect of Conocarpus trees and their roots on some of soil physical properties. The soil physical properties are moisture content , bulk density , total porosity , mean weight diameter (dry sieveing) and soil penetration resistance . Some soil samples are collected from two locations : the first location is Agric. College research, Garmat Ali, stations , Basra university , and the second location is Zuwber province farm . The soil texture of the first location is silty clay which is classified as fine clay mixed Calcarious hyperthermic typic torrifluvent, while the soil texture of the second location is sandy loam. This soil is classified with in species Entisol and under species psamments and high group , under high group and family (Typic torri psamments, Calcarious Mixed Hyperthermic). The soil samples are collected from two soil depths( 0 – 30 and 30 – 60) from both locations are planted with Conocarpus trees, their ages ranged between 4 to 5 years . The trees height is 2.5 – 3.0 m . Another soil samples are also collected from unplanted soil with Conocarpus trees. The results reveated that the silty clay soil is significantly surpassed the sandy loam soil in moisture content and mean weight diameter by a percentage of 68.76% and 32.91% respectively . Whereas, the bulk density and soil penetration resistance decreased , while the total porosity of the silty clay soil as compared with sandy loam soil .
For unplanted soil, moisture content, the bulk density and the soil penetration resistance are increased as compared with planted soil . The soil depth (30 – 60)cm is surpassed soil depth of ( 0- 30)cm in giving higher values of moisture content and bulk density whereas it does not significantly affect the mean weight diameter and soil penetration resistance .
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The Effect of Sulfur Sources, Levels and Time of Addition on Kinetics of Sulfur.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 142-153

A field experiment has been conducted at Suwera Researches Station in Wasit Governorate in spring season 2015 in clay loam in order to study the effect of sulfur sources R1 agriculture sulfur (90% sulfur) R2-foam sulfur (75% sulfur) at the levels of 0, 2500, 5000 kg,s,ha-1. represented the levels of S0, S1, S2 and time of addition T (30 days before sowing T0), 15 days before sowing (T1) and during sawing (T2) on the availability and release of sulfur in soil extracted by (5*10-4 M) citric acid during the period of plant growth (30, 60, 90, 120 days after sowing) by using kinetics concepts to determine the best kinetics equation that describes well the mechanic of sulfur release in soil which represents the amounts of sulfur availability for the plant.
Results show significant effect on sources, levels and addition time of sulfur availability and release abstracted by citric acid (5*104 M) during plant growth periods. Agriculture sulfur source is the highest level at the addition level S2 (5000 kg S. H-1) at addition time T2. The highest values are achieved at 30 days after sawing, at 376, 382 and 375 mg So=4.kg-1 soil respectively. Also, the triple interaction treatment R1S2T2 has achieves the highest values of released sulfur abstracted by citric acid at the same time, at 520 mg So=4.kg-1.soil.
Results show that all kinetics equations of sulfur which is abstracted by citric acids (5*104 M) in soil growth plant periods. Also, all the kinetic are equations clarifying well the mechanism of releasing sulfur from soil and fertilizers and the first order equation is the highest amongst all equations. The values of coefficient of sulfur release speed (ks) between 0.001 – 0.004 Cmolc. Kg-1 day-1. 0.001-0.004 Cmolc.kg-1.day-1 .

The Status of Temporal Changes in Land Suitability for Wheat Production in Musayeb Project Irrigated from Central Iraq Using GIS

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 154-166

Musayeb project in Babylon province has been selected in middle of Iraq to represent the irrigated area in order to study land suitability for wheat production and their temporal changes during 1994 - 2013.Soils of Musayeb project consist of undeveloped belong ,mainly to Entisols order with about 97% from the total area of the project , while the Arid soils occupied about 3 % from the total area .Data about the soils of the project has been collected from previous pedagogical soil survey works done in 1994 and resampling for soil has been done in 2013 in order to show the temporal changes in land suitability values .Land suitability evaluation values are determined according to Sys et.al.1993 and FAO,1985 to soil depth of 100 cm .The results indicate that soil units have high suitability up to 85 % from the total area of the project and within S1 class in 1994. While , 13% of the total area is unsuitable for wheat production which represent N1and N2 classes due to the effect of salt accumulation. Also , the results show that all soil units have low organic carbon content which affect land suitability values. Land suitability values are temporally improved from 1994 to 2013 due to the effect of land management practices leading to decrease salinity level and increase land suitability for wheat production .

Study of Sulfide Water Fountains in Al-Hisayah and Al-khasif / Iraq

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 167-183

The aim of this research was studied the (morphological , chemical and biological ) properties for sulfide fountains in Al-Diwaniyah province were include two region , the first was Al-hisayah and the second was Al-khasif.
The soil samples were taken from the side and the center of sulfide fountains and then the water samples were taken from the center of sulfide fountains.
The results were summarized as :
1. The morphological properties were differ between the two regions , the soil color were yellowish brown (10yr 7/6 and 10yr 7/4 ) to side and center soil consequently of Al-hisayah but the Al-khasif were light brown (10yr 6/2 and 10yr 6/4 ) to side and center soil consequently . The distance of sulfide fountains were (350, 45000)m2 to the Al-hisayah and Al-khasif consequently , the water smell has very terrible in Al-hisayah region with algea ,but in Al-khasif region has terrible water with some small fishes .
2. The chemical properties were measured in two regions . the results showed the al-khasif region in the (side and center) were highest than Al-hisayah region properties in Ec , soluble ions , Calicium carbonate , Total Nitrogen and Potassium but the Al-hisayah region were highest than Al-khasif region properties in pH , Organic matter , Total phosphorus . The sulfide water in Al-hisayah region has the highest values the Al-khasif region properties in Ec, soluable ions , total Potassium and phosphorus but the sulfide water in Al-khasif region has a highest values in total nitrogen.
3. The soil texture were differ between the two regions , the Al-hisayah region were silty and silty loam in the side and center consequently of the fountain, but the texture were loame and silt clay loame in side and center consequently in Al-khasif region . The bulk density were proximate among the soils in both regions .
4. The Al-hisayah region soils (side and center) has the highest values than Al-khasif region (side and center) in the bacteria numbers (12.02 , 13.20, 10.20 , 11.20) ×106 cell . gm-1.drysoil-1 consequently and the Al-hisayah region (center ) has the highest values too in fungi numbers (5.00 and 12.00) ×106 cell . gm-1.dry soil consequently but it has the lowest values in the (side) (13.10 and 7.00) ×106 cell . gm-1.drysoil consequently . The Al-khasif sulfide were the highest values in bacteria numbers but it has the lowest values in fungi values .
The cyano water in the Al-hisayah region has the highest values in bacteria and fungi numbers than the sulfide water in both regions 98.80×106 cell . gm-1.drysoil and 13.00×103 cell . gm-1.drysoil consequently. .

The Use of Rice Husk for Graywater Treatment in Irrigation and for Improving the Properties of Leaching Saline Soil

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 184-191

This study aims at finding out the possibility of using rice husks in the treatment of gray water resulting from the hands washing sinks of Rusafa side school of Baghdad, then useing it to irrigate plants in schools and improve the properties of soil to increase the growth of plants and get rid of them without any environmental or economic damage. Al-Sa'adah Primary School has been chosen to execute the research during 2015. Two experiments have been carried out: the first is in the laboratory to know the possibility of using the husks of rice in the treatment of gray water with the column system, and the second is a biological one to know the possibility of using the husks of rice to improve some properties of degraded soils by using the experiment of planting plastic pots. The randomized complete block design RCBD has been used with three replications. The results of the laboratory experiment show that gray water quality in all selected schools are good and non-saline and do not require secondary treatment, but only primary treatment by using husks of rice for filtering and clarifying from suspended solids and large species then can be used for irrigation. While the results of the biological experiment show that the addition of husks of rice to the soil has lead to the increase of organic matter, water conductivity and total porosity as (7 gm.kg-1) ,( 2.46 cm.hr-1), and 44.14% respectively. Decreasing the bulk and particle density to (1.20gm.cm-3), (2.55gm.cm-3) respectively, and thereby improves physical and chemical properties of the soil which in turn is reflected in the increased growth of plants in the school and thus preserves the environment from pollution..

The Effect of Some Primary Tillage Equipment on Performance Efficiency Under Two Level of Soil Moisture Content and Different Machinery Unit Speeds.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 192-204

A field experiment was conducted in the experiment fields of the college of agriculture - University of Baghdad – Abu Ghraib , 2016 in a silt clay loam soil , to Evaluate the effect of some primary tillage equipment and two of levels of soil moisture content in some of performance efficiency indicator for different forward speed , ArmaTrac 845e and ITM 285 New tractor with moldboard and chisel and sweep plow as a machinery unit have been used in this study .
Two levels of soil Moisture content include (18 – 20 % ) and (14 – 16%) represented main plot , three types of plow ( moldboard , chisel and sweep) represent sub plot , five machinery speeds included ( 1.5 , 2.53 , 3.75 , 5.3 and 6.71 km.hr-1 ) represent sub plot , Slippage percentage (%) , fuel consumption (L.hr-1) , drawbar pull (KN) , Field capacity (he.hr-1) are have been been measured in this study . And the results have been analyzed by using the order of the spilt - spilt - plot with randomize complete block design with three replicates and tested by the way averages less significant difference and the level of probability of 0.05 .
The results show that : the soil moisture content ( 14 – 16 % ) has got a less value of slippage percentage % , fuel consumption L.hr-1 , drawbar pull Kn and higher field capacity ha.hr-1 , and sweep plow has got a less value of slippage percentage , fuel consumption and drawbar pull , and the chisel plow has got a higher field capacity , and when the tractor speed is increased it leads to a increase in the slippage and fuel consumption and drawbar pull and field capacity will be an increase .-1.

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anise Seeds. Pimpinella Anisum L. Effect on Body Weight , Weight Gain , Feed Consumption and Feed Conversion Ratio of Japanese Quail

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 205-212

An Experiment has been conducted in research station (the first) of the college of Agriculture / University of Al-Muthanna for the period from 07/22/2015 until 09/5/2015 in order to study the effect of adding aqueous extract of anise seeds recipes on the body weight and feed conversion of Japanese quail. A total of 256 of day old quail chicks which are randomly distributed into four treatment groups,64 chicks are per treatment . Chicks in each treatment group have been subdivided into four replicates (16 chicks for each) the aqueous extract of anise seeds has been added to the drinking water at the rate of 25,50,75,0 ml per liter of drinking water for the four treatment groups respectively .
The data show that water treatment is significantly (p<0.05) improved live body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion of Japanese quail chicks.
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A study of the Effect of Adding the Water of the Anise Seeds Pimpinella Anisuml to the Drinking Water on the Characteristics of the Body Weight and Some Carcass Characteristics of the Birds of Quail at the Age of Four and Six Weeks.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 213-222

This experiment has been conducted in agricultural research and experiences of the college of Agriculture / University of Al-Muthanna station for the period 07/22/2014 - 11/22/2015 in order to study the effect of adding the aquase dressing of anise seed to the drinking water on the body weight dressing percentages , relative weight of carcass cuts (Breast, thigh, hack ,wing and neck) in which 3males and 3females have been slaughter in all treatment . A total of 256 of one day old quails chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups .
The Results show that the addition of aqueous extract of anise seeds with a significant effect (P <0.05) in vivo weight and carcass weight and percentages for weights Qtaiat carcass (chest, thighs, back, wings, neck) at the age of (6.4 weeks) . The results also show that gender has a significant effect on the studied traits. .

Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on Yield and Some Growth Parameters of Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanese ) Crop

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 223-231

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen(0,200 and 300 kgNha-1) and phosphorus (0,60,and 180 kgPha-1) fertilization and their combination on yield and some growth parameters of sudangrass(Sorghum Sudanese). (Number of leaves per plant, plant height, number of heads per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, ,yields of seeds , dry weight of shoots and protein content in seeds)were measure . Results indicated that nitrogen and phosphate application and their combination had significant effects on all growth parameters and yield of Sudangrass . The combination treatment of 300kgNha-1 plus 180 kgPha-1) gave higher yield (71.86 gm.plant-1) and protein content in seeds( 5.79 %) and other growth parameters. .