Volume 8, Issue 2, Autumn 2018, Page 1-106


Development of in-vitro Sensitivity Testing for Pathogenic Bacteria

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

A new method developed for in-vitro susceptibility test in medical laboratories consist of micro tubes or gloves containing dehydrated tryptic soya broth, 5% glucose, 0.1% bromothymol blue and one type of antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol) with critical concentration MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for susceptibility. Standard quality control
strains of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) suspension were adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard (1 × 106 cell/mL) were used in inoculation the media and incubated two hours at 37 °C. The MIC of ampicillin against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa were 4, 32, and 256 µg/mL of the media for the bacteria respectively, while the MIC of tetracycline against bacteria were 512, 512 and 32 µg/mL respectively, the MIC of chloramphenicol were 512, 32 and 512 µg/mL, respectively. Where, the resistant bacteria to the antibiotics could grow and ferment glucose sugar producing a color change of the media from blue to yellow, while the sensitive bacteria do not grow or show no change in color. Our study result compared with common used antibiotic disk method obtaining similar results. This developed method characterized by fast (only two hours) and less cost in comparison to conventional technique. The new micro tube strip is highly stable (more than one year) with more sensitive in detection of variable pathogenic bacteria including standard bacteria strains compared with conventional technique..

The Effect of Thermodynemic Parameters on the Rlationship Between Exchangeable Sodium Percentage and Sodium Adsorption Ratio in Saline Soil of Iraq Central.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 6-11

The study was conducted to determine the relationship between the exchangeable sodium percentage ESP and sodium adsorption ratio SAR in the soil solution. Some saline affected soils were selected at the locations Yosifya, Muwayliha, Imam, Eychreesh, Mahaweel, Ejbalah, Abe-Ghragg, Kifil, Elseneya and Eldagharaah. Using thermodynamic criteria to recalculate throught description quantitative concepts rather than analytical.The results indicate that the values of SAR range from 0.96 - 26.80 (cmol Kg-¹)º•5 of the studied sites and this ratio increased when taking into account free ions 3.52 - 32.7 (cmol Kg-¹)º•5. The ESP Calculated laboratory was (2.0 - 9.0 %) and all of these were less than ESP % according to laboratory salinity accounts, and generally show increase in the values of the proportion of ESP with increased SAR according to the approved indicators. The probability of these soils turning into sodic is unlikely to decrease pH and HCO3-¹ values and increase concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions.
The statistical results indicated that in order to predict soil ESP based on soil SAR the linear regression model for predicting soil ESP from SAR. ESP=1.95+1.05SAR with R²=0.92 can be recommended. R² = 0.92.

Role of Organic Acids on Phosphorus Fractions in Silty Clay Loam Soil

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 12-21

This study was conducted to evaluation the role of the organic acids in the phosphorus fractions in silty clay loam texture. The laboratoryexperiment was conducted by adding the organic acids (Humic acid ,Citric acid ,Oxalic acid , Malic acid ,Acetic acid and Lactic acid )to the fertilized soil with conc. super phosphate fertilizer with 100 kg h-1 level with concentrations (0,15,30,45 and60)mg L-1,except Humic acid (500,1000,1500 and 2000) mg L-1.The soil was incubated at 30 C for 14,28,42,56 and 70 days period and the keep of field capacity about of incubation period during the daily weight.Amount of available ,mineral ,organic and total phosphorus after each incubated period were measured. The results showed that theaddition of organic acids of Humic acid ,Citric acid ,Oxalic acid and Malic acid were caused to increaseamount of available ,mineral ,organic and constant of total phosphorus in fertilized soil with conc. super phosphate fertilizer and increased its amount with increasing of organic acid concentration and better of Humic acid 2000mg L-1 significanton all the treatments .The results of the study that theaddition of organic acids were caused to increase amount of available and mineral phosphorus with increasing of incubation period and constant amount of total phosphorus and decreasing of organic phosphorus amount and available for only soil and only fertilizer treatment during increasing of incubation period .The organic acids can be arranged according to its ability toincrease the availabilityof the phosphorus as follow :
Humic acid> Citric acid> Oxalic acid> Malic acid> Acetic acid>Lactic acid >control..

Effects of Soil Depth And Rivers Slop on Total Boron Content In Some of The Iraqi Provinces

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 22-40

Aiming to study effects of soil depth and rivers slop on total boron concentration in Middle Euphrates River Reion that represent in the sedimentary plain, soil pedon samples of cultivated territory that adjacent to rivers were taken. These regions are located in provinces of Karbala, Babylon, Najaf, Diwaniyah, and Al-Muthana. Ten soil pedon were taken of soils that adjacent to the main Euphrates River, the Al-Hilaa, and the AL-Daghara Rivers in these provinces. Soil pedon of soils that on the banks or close to the main Euphrates River were taken of counties of Twarije, Kufa, Gamas, and Al-Samawa. In the same way, soil pedon of Missaib, Hashmiah, Diwaniyah, and Rumitha are adjacent to the Hilla River and soil pedon of Al-Daghara and Affak belongs to the area of Al-Daghara River. Results show a reduction in total boron concentration for all of the tested soil pedon directly related with the depth. Aggregate boron concentration values are the highest at the surface layer and reduce as going depth except for soils of Al-Samawa and Al-Rumitha. Total boron concentration values are fluctuated between 1.033 mg. kg-1 and 14.658 mg. kg-1 in all of the studied soils. the results showed too the total boron values are not conducted with the tourmaline mineral percent in all sites..

Improve the Growth and Yield of Figs by Foliar Nutrition at Post-Harvest

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 41-51

A factorial experiment was carried out by spraying the fig (Ficus carica L.) trees cv. Aswad Diyala at post-harvest in the 2014 and 2015 seasons, in one orchards of Diwaniyah city/ Iraq, with two liquid fertilizers: Azomin and Prosol at 3 levels (0, 3 and 6) g.l-1 and (0, 2 and 4) g.l-1, respectively. The results showed that third level of both fertilizers gave The widest leaf area:{(5.53, 6.42) and (5.52 , 6.38)}m2.tree-1, highest leaf content of chlorophyll {(131.63 ,132.55) , (132.63 , 130.93)}mg.100g-1 more N percent of leaf {(2.12 , 2.11) , (2.31, 2.34)}%, highest carbohydrates percent of leaf {(14.65 , 15.10) , (14.83, 15.02)}%, for compounds and seasons, respectively. As for the crop that took place in the 2015 and 2016 seasons gave the highest yield{(20.50, 21.66) (20.80, 21.30)}kg.tree-1, most level of K in the fruit{(280.10, 272.70), (292.40, 288.10)}mg.100g-1 and highest content of anthocyanin{(512.10, 519.90), (482.90, 494.50)} mg.100g-1. There was a significant interaction between the experimental factors, which reached a peak in the third level, in the leaf area in the 2014 and 2015 seasons (5.85 and 6.86) m2.tree-1, and the anthocyanin in the 2015 and 2016 seasons in fruit (518.20 and 534.80) mg.100g-1, respectively.
It can be concluded that the post-harvest spraying of Aswad Diyala cv., with the, Azomin and Prosol at the levels of 6 and 4g.l-1, respectively, gave the best results..

The Role of BioFertilizer in Reduction of Irrigation Periods for the Yield and Components of Mung Bean

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 52-64

A field study has been conducted during autumn season of 2016 at Karbala province of Hindia by mung bean plant Vigna radiate L. is a local category to study the interrelated effect of both the Mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae (and the Rhizobia bacteria (R.leguminosarum)Under levels of water stress. Three treatments of irrigation are used ; (S1 irrigation every 5 days and S2 irrigation every 10 days and S3 irrigation every 15 days) and four levels of Bio fertilizer are used (without inoculation) (C0) and (Rhizobium inoculation) (R) and (mycorrhiza inoculation)(M) and (the interaction between mycorrhiza and Rhizobium) (M+R). A split plot in randomized complete block design is used with three replications to do this experiment. Treatments of irrigation are used as main plots while Bio fertilizer levels are used as sub-plot. Least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability is used to compare between the means.
The results showed irrigation every 5 days (S1) was superior in having the highest average of (The dry weight of the root, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod ,100 seeds weight ,seed yield , Biological yield) Amount (0.78 gm. Plant-1, 31.33 pods. Plant-1 , 8.45 seed .pod-1 , 3.82 gm ,3.77 tan .ha-1 , 7.37tan .ha-1) respectively. without significant difference between them treatment of irrigation 10 days (S2) in 100-seed weight 3.50 gm. Moreover treatment Bio fertilizer (R+M) significantly gives the highest means for yield and yield components (0.89 gm. Plant-1, 33.64 pods. Plant-1 , 8.42 seed .pod-1 , 4.10 gm , 4.00 tan .ha-1, 7.70 tan .ha-1) respectively. The interaction among (R+M)S1,(R+M)S2 and(M)S1 significantly give the highest means for all plant characteristics. .

Re Extrapolation For The Iraq Marshes Which Falling Within The World Heritage List (A Literature Review)

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 65-82

The Mesopotamian Marshlands or The Garden of Eden, lies in the southern part of Iraq with estimated area of 15000-20000 km2. Historically, the area had pioneering role in the human civilization for over 5000 years. The indigenous people of the area are called “Marsh Arabs” or “Ma’dan” who are the descendants of the Sumerians and Semitic people. The former Iraqi regime (Saddam Hussein) had violently led an aggressive campaign to drain the marshes in 1991. Only %7 of the total area survived this campaign, which caused a mass destruction of the ecosystem and dwellers’ displacement. In 2003, water started to flow back to the area. Yet, the reflooding did not restore the whole former area of the wetlands. Moreover, the new ecosystem influenced the diversity and characteristics of the co-existing species in the area. In 2016, due to the importance of the Mesopotamian Marshlands, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) listed three marshes from the area as World Heritage Sites requiring conservation, namely: Hammar, Hwezeh and Central Marshes. The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the ecosystem of those three sites from a biological perspective by examining some challenges that should be dealt with to restore stability to this multi-thousand-year-old system..

The Effect Study of Different Levels of Rapeseed Meal on Some Productive and Physiological Characteristics in Broiler Chickens.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 83-87

This study was conducted to assess the effect of different ratio of Rapeseed meal on some productive and physiological characteristics in Broiler chickens
This study include 63 bird sample with age of 21 days that had been divided into 3 groups treatment with (control (C) 0% , T1 5%, T2 10% ) of Rapeseed meal respectively and each group included to three replication . The poultry dietary and water were supplied freely in front of birds during whole study period . The results were as follow :
1- There was no significant differences in bird weight in all treatments. And there was significant decrease in feed intake and significant increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) in T2 in comparison with (C , T1)
2- There was no significant differences in uric acid serum concentration for all groups and significant increase in serum cholesterol in T2 in comparison with (C , T1). There were significant differences between all groups in serum glucose level. There was significant decrease in serum glucose level by increase the Rapeseed meal ratio (5%, 10%) respectively in comparison with control .
According to results , it could be used Rapeseed meal with 10 % ratio in Broiler chickens feed that gives the best FCR. .

Effect of Sex of Birth and Stage of Lactation on Milk Production and Its Components in the Holstein-Friesian Cows.

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 88-91

This study was conducted on data which collected from the filed Cattle in the college of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the period from 1/7/2013 to 1/10/2013, which included 28 cows of Holstein Friesian to show the effect of sex of birth and the stage of lactation on Milk production and the main components. Our results showed The highest average milk production for female foster cows recorded in the first week with a value of 233L . The results show that had no significant effect of sex of birth on milk production and the main components. The results showed that the highest values of milk fat, lactose and minerals in the seventh week of lactation, which values were (3.559, 4.337and 0.638%) respectively, while the highest protein value was recorded in the third week (2.821%). There was no significant interaction among chemical components and stage of lactation , despite the superiority of the milk of female foster cows on the milk of male foster cows in some traits..

The Effect of Pre-Incubation And Storage Period on Some hatching Traits for Broiler Breeder Eggs .

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 92-100

A total of 1800 broiler breeder , Ross 308 at 47 wks old , hatching eggs .Were used in the present study . Eggs were randomly distributed into 12 experimental treatments ,150 eggs pretreatment groups . The treatment groups were as follows :
T1 treatment without pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period
T2 treatment without pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period
T3 treatment without pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period
T4 treatment 4 hours pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period
T5 treatment 4 hours pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period
T6 treatment 4 hours pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period
T7 treatment 8 hours pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period
T8 treatment 8 hours pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period
T9 treatment 8 hours pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period
T10 treatment 12 hours pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period.
T11 treatment 12 hours pre-incubation +8 days eggs storage period
T12 treatment 12 hours pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period.
Experimental parameters measured included : Fertility , hatchability percentage from the total incubated eggs and from fertile eggs , hatching chicks length , weekly embryonic mortality ,piped eggs and quality evaluation of navel for hatching chicks .
The results of this study showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in the rate of early embryonic mortality of the treatment which was pre- incubated for 8 hours and stored for 12 days compared to the treatment that was unpre-incubated and stored for 4 days, medium embryonic mortality increased to a treatment which was pre-incubated for 8 hours and stored for 12 days compared to the treatment that was pre-incubated for 8 hours and was stored for 4 days , the rate of piped eggs was significantly (P<0.05) increased to the treatment 4 hours pre-incubated x 12 days storage compared to most others treatments. The percentage of hatched chicks its have the navel type A significantly (P<0.05) increased for the treatment 4 hours × 4 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days , while significantly (P<0.05) decrease the percentage of hatched chicks type navel B for treatment 0 hour × 4 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days , either quality type C It has significantly (P<0.05) decreased for both treatments 4 hour ×4 days and 4 hour ×8 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days
.

Prevalence Rate of Isolated Cryptosporidium Spp. of Broiler Chicken in Al-Qadisiyah Province

AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 101-106

This study has been carried out to determined the prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis in broiler flocks. 150 fecal samples from 30 broiler flocks (5 samples for each flock) in different areas of AL-Qadisiyah province were used. They were collected starting of January till November 2016 with two age groups of chickens, (10-15 and 30-35) days old. Samples were examined with Modified Ziel -Neelsen stain to detect the positive samples by microscopic examination. After that, a nested-PCR technique was performed on 60 samples. Results of microscopic examination showed that total infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 29.33% . The highest rates of infection were recorded in 10-15 days group and during spring season, infection rates reached were 35.71% and 34.28% respectively. The lowest rates were observed in 30-35 days group and during summer season were 23.75% and 20% respectively. No significant differences within percentage in both two age group or among percentage in seasons at level (P < 0.05) were recorded. According to Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction test, the results showed that overall percentage of infection is 20%. The highest rate of observed infection is 23.33% in 10-15 days aged group, while the lowest rate of infection is (16.67 %) in the other age. No significant differences was observed between percentage in ages. On the other hand, result of comparing nested-PCR test with microscopic examination shows that there are no significant differences between the percentage of both tests.
In conclusion, cryptosporidiosis is widespread in broiler flocks in AL-Qadisiyah province, but there is no significant impact found concerning the relationship between infection rates and age of chickens or seasons of the year..